World War 2
The Second World War began in 1939 and ended in 1945 and engaged most of Europe and Asia into combat between the Allies and the Axis powers.
Asked in World War 2
What were some of the causes of World War 2?
The war in Europe was caused by the German invasion of Poland and the war in Asia was triggered by the Japanese invasion of China. Searching for more fundamental causes is more complicated and becomes intertwined with friendus to "What could have prevented World War 2?" and "What chains of events led to WW2?" On September 1, 1939 Hitler sent troops into Poland after repeatedly being told NOT to try and take over neighboring countries by Britain and France. They declared war on Germany September 3, 1939. Here are friendus and opinions from Wikifriendus Contributors about the causes of World War 2: German and Japanese Agendas The key cause of the war in Europe was Hitler's agenda of conquest and Japan's expansionism. Failure of the Treaty of Versailles: The treaty signed after World War I treated Germany very harshly and was greatly resented by the German people. The size of Germany's military was severely restricted. Germany lost territory in Europe and was forced to give up territories from its overseas colonies. Germany was ordered to pay $33 billion in reparations (war damages). This left Germany with grievances. In the Great Depression, which hit Germany early in 1930, unemployment was at terrible levels. Hitler made it his responsibility to defy all of the charges made on Germany through the Treaty. He re-armed the nation, built up a massive army, re-militarized the Rhineland, and threatened neighboring states. It was obvious he was preparing for war. Appeasement, Isolationism, and the Failure of the League of Nations: The Treaty of Versailles was seen as particularly unfair by those Germans who accepted the myth that Germany was never defeated on the battlefield in WWI - a myth propagated by Field Marshals Hindenburg and Ludendorff, even though they were the two who told the government to seek an armistice. Yet the treaty itself is not what started WWII (though it didn't stop it from happening). Rather, it was the unwillingness of Great Powers such as Great Britain and France, along with the the League of Nations, to uphold the treaty provisions. When Germany announced that it had an air force; that they were re-introducing military conscription; that they were re-occupying the demilitarized Rhineland; and that they had reached a naval agreement with Great Britain that allowed them to build a navy thirty-five percent the size of Great Britain's (roughly the size of France's) -- the League of Nations only provided paper protests and the Versailles treaty became as dead as a doornail. WWII was started not only by Hitler's aspirations, but by an enfeebled West which did not comprehend the magnitude of its inaction. Leading up to the war, some European countries had weakened their own military forces (Denmark had basically disarmed itself, which made it the almost ideal trampoline for German forces into Norway) or had grown wary of enforcing the Treaty of Versailles despite the fact that a known madman had come to the helm in Germany. At the end of World War I, the victorious nations formed the League of Nations for the purpose of airing international disputes, and of mobilizing its members for a collective effort to keep the peace in the event of aggression by any nation against another or of a breach of the peace treaties. The United States, imbued with isolationism, did not become a member. The Soviet Union was not admitted till 1935 ... The League failed in its first test. In 1931, the Japanese, using as an excuse the explosion of a small bomb under a section of track of the South Manchuria Railroad (over which they had virtual control), initiated military operations designed to conquer all of Manchuria. After receiving the report of its commission of inquiry, the League adopted a resolution in 1933 calling on the Japanese to withdraw. Thereupon, Japan resigned from the League. Meanwhile, Manchuria had been overrun and transformed into a Japanese puppet state under the name of Manchukuo. Beset by friction and dissension among its members, the League took no further action. Also in 1933, Adolf Hitler came to power as dictator of Germany and began to rearm the country in contravention of the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. He denounced the provisions of that treaty that limited German armament and in 1935 re-instituted compulsory military service. That same year the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini began his long-contemplated invasion of Ethiopia, which he desired as an economic colony. The League voted minor sanctions against Italy, but these had little practical effect. British and French efforts to effect a compromise settlement failed, and Ethiopia was completely occupied by the Italians in 1936. Hitler re-militarized the Rhineland in 1936. It was a dangerous venture, for Britain and France could have overwhelmed Germany, but, resolved to keep the peace, they took no action. Emboldened by this success, Hitler intensified his campaign for Lebensraum (living space) for the German people. He annexed Austria in March 1938, and then, charging abuse of German minorities, threatened Czechoslovakia. In September 1938, as Hitler increased his demands on the Czechs and war seemed imminent, the British and French arranged a conference with Hitler and Mussolini. At the Munich Conference they agreed to German occupation of the Sudetenland, Hitler's asserted last claim, in the hope of maintaining peace. This hope was short lived, for in March 1939 Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia and seized the former German port of Memel from Lithuania. There followed demands on Poland with regard to Danzig (Gdansk) and the Polish Corridor. The Poles remained adamant, and it became clear to Hitler that he could attain his objectives only by force. After surprising the world with the announcement of a nonaggression pact with his sworn foe, the Soviet Union, he sent his armies across the Polish border on Sept. 1, 1939. The US policy of isolationism: Leading up to World War II, the United States of America maintained a policy of isolation. The United States focused little attention on any conflicts occurring outside of their borders. Fascism, Nationalism, Totalitarianism, and Collectivist Ideology: Fascists fully support the military and feel war is acceptable in achieving national goals. Because of this, Italy and Germany were prepared to follow this policy and expand and form empires of their own. Germany wanted to unite the dominant German "race." This led to the Czech crisis. Extreme fear of Bolshevism, deliberately encouraged by hard line nationalists, like Hitler and Mussolini. Hitler saw it as his mission in life to eliminate Bolshevism and what he saw as its "biological root," the Jews. Expansionism: The war was caused by the expansionist desires of Hitler, Mussolini and the Japanese imperialists. Germany, Italy and Japan wanted to conquer new territories and enslave or exterminate the peoples living there. Economic Depression and Instability: The Great World Depression in 1929 became a very important cause of the war. It sent the German economy into a great disaster, causing a humongous number of unemployed people. In the book Causes and Consequences of World War Two it is written that, to the Germans, Hitler was now a strong, determined, and efficient leader who knew exactly where he was going. But did the people actually know where he was leading them? No, the people believed that Hitler was leading them out of the depression; but, in actuality, Hitler's motives were different from what the people thought they were. He used the Great Depression to connive his way into authority. His real motives were to abolish the Treaty of Versailles, expand German territory, and dominate Europe and the whole world. In order to achieve these goals he first wanted to conquer France and Russia while he was still on the same side as Italy and Britain. He believed that Italy and Britain would stay to his side until he began the full destruction of the Jews. If there had been no Great Depression, do you think World War 2 would still have happened? The political climate created by this depression allowed dictators such as Hitler to rise to power. Japan was trying to gain natural resources to feed its industry. Japan has almost no natural resources itself. It attacked the US to "clear the way" for its conquest of American, Dutch, British, and Australian colonies and gain their resources. Alliances: Britain and France's treaty with Poland expanded what might otherwise have been a 'local' war into something much bigger. If they had instead decided to not fulfill their obligations under the treaty the war in Europe might very well have ended up with just a war between Germany and Russia. The view that the Versailles Treaty was too onerous, and that this is the cause of World War II, is an American high school history teacher's myth. It is a view that can be traced to the isolationists of the 1920s, who declared that World War I had been a mistake, and resisted American preparations for and involvement in World War II right up until Pearl Harbor. Although the Versailles Treaty imposed monetary reparations on the Germany, Allied assistance to the Weimar Republic, both through the Dawes Plan and through investment in Germany during the 1920s, greatly exceeded the reparations taken from Germany under provisions of the Versailles Treaty. Readers would do well to revisit a forgotten treaty, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918), to see what peace conditions imperial Germany imposed on Russia (the Soviet Union) as the price of peace after the Russians were defeated and forced out of the war in 1917. More Input: Commonly held underlying causes for WWII are nationalism, militarism, and unresolved territorial issues. Fascist movements emerged in Italy and Germany during the global economic instability of the 1920s, and consolidated power during the Great Depression of the 1930s. In Germany, resentment of the Treaty of Versailles, the belief in the Dolchstosslegende, and the onset of the Great Depression fueled the rise to power of the militarist National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazi party), led by Adolf Hitler. Meanwhile, the Treaty's provisions were laxly enforced from fear of another war. Closely related is the failure of the British and French policy of appeasement, which sought to avoid war but actually encouraged Hitler to become bolder and gave Germany time to re-arm, and the USSR's signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact which freed Germany of fear of reprisal from the Soviet Union when Germany invaded Poland. The League of Nations, despite its efforts to prevent the war, relied on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, and was unable to prevent the start of The Second World War. Japan in the 1930s was ruled by a militarist clique devoted to becoming a world power. Japan invaded China to bolster its meager stock of natural resources. The United States and Great Britain reacted by making loans to China, providing covert military assistance, and instituting increasingly broad embargoes of raw materials against Japan. These embargoes would have eventually forced Japan to give up its newly conquered possession in China because the Japanese would not have enough fuel to run their war machine; Japan was faced with the choice of withdrawing from China or going to war with the United States in order to conquer the oil resources of the Dutch East Indies. It chose the latter, and went ahead with plans for the Greater East Asia War in the Pacific. Germany invaded Poland , therefore Britain and France declared war on Germany on Sept, 1939. The USA entered the war on Dec.7, 1941 when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. As for the Pacific War, Japan had long been coveting Mainland resources, invading China and (en route) Korea for centuries. Under the guise of The Co-Prosperity Sphere (8-Lands Under One Umbrella), Japan plotted an imperial takeover of Asia and the Pacific a la Western Imperialism less than a century earlier. The US opposed this movement and placed embargoes on Japan. Searching for supplies and rebelling against US intervention, Japan embarked on its Oriental conquest. Hoping to keep the US Air Force out of Japan's way, Adm. Yamamoto led the attack on Pearl Harbor. Some historians, such as Arno Mayer, see the two World Wars (at least in Europe) as essentially one war with a twenty-year truce. However, this view should not be taken literally. One of Arno Mayer's key points is that throughout the period from about 1900-1945 the traditional elites (especially the aristocracy) were having immense difficulty preserving their position in industrialized societies and were keen to divert conflict abroad, and away from domestic politics. This was a key factor in the enthusiasm for nationalism. The rise of Communism from 1917 onwards was seen as a particularly powerful threat. Hitler invaded Poland, Britain and France then declared war on Germany. In Europe: the Nazis' desire for boundless expansion. The war was triggered, as stated above, by the German invasion of Poland in September 1939. Another important factor was the long-standing Nazi ambition of destroying Bolshevism. This, together with the desire for expansion, led to the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. In Asia: the Japanese regime's desire for massive expansion in Asia and the Pacific. This (initially separate) war began in 1937 with the all-out Japanese invasion of China. The Japanese attack on the U.S. (Pearl Harbor, 1941) and the subsequent German declaration of war on the U.S. in effect combined these two wars into one war. Obviously, for longer term causes one would have to go further back. In Europe, WW2 arose from German resentment about the result of WW1; it was essentially a re-run. There was no distinct cause; there were many factors that contributed: Aggressive Nationalism Countries weren't just thinking "I'm better than you", but "I'll beat you up to prove it." There were dangerous tangled alliances Collapse of Collective Security There was no "Planet Police Force" like the USA. claims to be now. No one was stopping the "evil" that was being done. Violation of Human Rights People who were in power greatly abused it and no one stopped them. Not to mention the Totalitarian Dictatorships; they denied even the slightest Appeasement Countries were allowing others to do whatever they wanted in the hopes that what they did would be all they wanted. Failure of the USA. to get involved sooner It was the USA. that emerged victorious and the world's superpower. If they hadn't declared neutrality, the war would have been over sooner. The intention of FDR (president at the time) was to offer "Cash and Carry" to the nations of the world to protect the USA. from getting involved and help themselves out of the depression. In my opinion, this would have been accomplished as well if we had declared war off the bat, the economic boost would have been the same. One of the main reasons is the Treaty of Versailles, but the bad economy in countries and appeasement also played a pretty big role. One of the main reasons is the Treaty of Versailles, but the bad economy in countries and appeasement also played a pretty big role. One of the chief causes of WWII was the Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1918 by Germany after their defeat in WWI. This put strict rules on Germany. For example, Germany was not allowed to have a standing army over 100,000 men and were limited a very small Navy and practically no Air Force. Also, this Treaty put the guilt of World War I onto Germany, as they had to pay for war reparations. Poverty became rampant and the economy struggled awfully. For example, before WWI, four marks were equal to one dollar. After the war, it took four billion marks to equal one dollar. When the German people saw Hitler, they saw him as a strong leader that would lead Germany to it's previous greatness. This is mainly how he was able to commit the atrocities that he did while under the public eye. Because Hitler is an ass.....Thats all Because Hitler is an ass.....Thats all
Asked in World War 2, Japan, Harry Truman, Atomic Bombs
Why did Truman decide to use the atomic bomb against Japan?
Asked in World War 2
When did World War 2 start?
Answer Germany invaded Poland on September 1 and on September 3, 1939 France and Britain declared war on Germany. However, despite the fact that the Allies did not declare war on Japan until December 1941, Japanese aggression included the occupation of Manchuria as early as 1931, and open war with China between 1937 and 1945. Their plans to control the western Pacific prompted their attack on the US fleet. Answer By convention the date generally given by historians is 1 September 1939, when Germany invaded Poland, but it wasn't an official war until 3 September 1939, when England and France declared war on Germany after Germany's invasion of Poland. It ended on September 2, 1945 with the surrender of Japan, after the United States dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The following other events are occasionally cited as possible starting points: 3 September 1939: Britain and France declared war on Germany following the German invasion of Poland. 7 July 1937: The Japanese invasion of China (the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War). 1931: The Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Others argue that the two world wars are one conflict separated only by a "ceasefire." Here are other significant dates of the war: 10 June, 1940: Fascist Italy declares war on Britain and France. 7 December, 1941: Japan attacks America without any declaration of war. 8 December 8, 1941: America declares war on Japan. 11 December, 1941: Germany and Fascist Italy declare war on America. 8 September, 1943 Fascist Italy surrenders. 13 October, 1943: Italy declares war on Germany. 19 April, 1945: German forces in Italy surrender. 8 May, 1945: Germany surrenders (VE Day, Victory in Europe Day). 2 September, 1945: Japan surrenders (VJ Day, Victory over Japan Day). General Okamura Yasiyi submitted surrender to Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester Nimitz on the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. Answer The end of WWII was in 1945. However, there were some Japanese soldiers on isolated islands in the Pacific who never got the message that the war ended (or they believed it was a trick) and they fought on for years afterward. Believe it or not, the last Japanese soldier to surrender was Second Lieutenant Hiroo Onada who emerged from the Philippine jungle in 1974 to finally surrender. His book, "No Surrender - My Thirty-Year War" is fascinating. Answer The commencement of World War 2 has different dates in different countries. To the Americans, World War 2 started on December 7th, 1941, when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. To Britain, France, Canada, Poland, World War 2 started on Sept. of 1939, when Nazi Germany attacked Poland. To Czechoslovakia, World War Two started in March of 1939, when Nazi Germany attacked them. To the Ethiopians, World War Two started in 1936, when Italy attacked. To the Chinese, it dates back to 1931, when Japan occupied Manchuria. The Russians date the start in June 1941 (not 1939). Answer World War 2 "started" on the 3rd of September, when Britain and France declared war on Germany. (They had a treaty with Poland). The war ended in early May 1945 in Europe, Hitler having committed suicide in April of that year. The war in Japan ended after their surrender to the Americans in response to the A-bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki - respectively the 6th and 9th of August 1945. Answer By a long-standing convention, the dates are usually given as 1939-1945, except in Russia, where they are usually given as 1941-1945. If one gives another starting date, one conveys the message that one is making some point or other, for example, that one is claiming that the sufferings of the Chinese have not been given the attention they deserve. As for the notion that WW1 and WW2 were one war with a 20-year truce, this is not meant literally. World War II began on 9/3/39, 2 days after the invasion of Poland. Britain and France ordered Germany to halt the invasion of Poland and when they refused, Britain and France declared war. Sept 01, 1939 September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland.
Asked in World War 2
How did World War 2 begin?
What Started WW2 The question "How did World War 2 start?" or "What started World War 2?" can be considered distinct from "What caused World War 2?" For the latter, see the Related Question link. There are many views on exactly when and where World War 2 started, and what started it. The War in Europe One view is that there was only one world war. It started in 1914 and finished in 1945, with a break from 1918-1939 while the Germans regrouped. (Kaiser Wilhelm, or at least the German General Staff, had similar foreign policy aims to those of Hitler: a vast program of expansion with visions of world domination.) However, this view of one long war, with a 20 year truce is often not meant literally, and needs treating with caution. Hindsight easily distorts. It is inaccurate to view the whole of the interwar period as one vast build-up to World War 2.More commonly, people believe World War 2 started in 1939. On 1 September 1939, Hitler and the Nazis faked a Polish attack on a minor German radio station in order to justify a German invasion of Poland. An hour later Hitler declared war on Poland stating one of his reasons for the invasion was because of "the attack by regular Polish troops on the Gleiwitz transmitter." France and Britain had a defensive pact with Poland. This forced France and Britain to declare war on Germany, which they did on September 3. The War in the Pacific Some say World War 2 started in late 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. This is sometimes referred to as the Mukden Incident. The major invasion of China by Japan was in 1937. Japan had long been coveting mainland resources, invading China and (en route) Korea for centuries. Under the guise of The Co-Prosperity Sphere (8-Lands Under One Umbrella), Japan plotted an imperial takeover of Asia and the Pacific in the style of Western imperialism less than a century earlier. The US opposed this movement and placed embargoes on Japan. Searching for supplies and rebelling against US intervention, Japan embarked on its Oriental conquest. Hoping to keep the US Air Force out of Japan's way, Admiral Yamamoto led the attack on Pearl Harbor. Unfortunately they opened fire 30 minutes before the proclamation of war was officially delivered, so many viewed it as a violation of military convention (Adm. Yamamoto regretted this fact; he admired Western military practices). Note that one reason many people say WWII started in 1939 by Hitler's invasion of Poland instead of by Japan in 1937 is because the former is the moment when the first main Allied nation declared war on an Axis nation (Britain declares war on Germany). Rather than be specific and say the first shots of origin started with Japan's invasion, it is pointed out that no main Allied nation had declared war at that time. The War in Africa Some people consider the war in Africa as starting with the 1935 invasion of Ethiopia by Italy. However, few Italians take the view that Italy was at war from 1935-1945. Here's more from Wiki s contributors: For the European Theater it began with Germany's attack on Poland which drew England and France into the fray. Pearl Harbor marked the start of the Pacific Theater. Germany's declaration of war against the US folded them together into a worldwide conflict. It began when Britain and France declared war on Germany in response to Germany's invasion of Poland. Japan bombed US planes and installation at Pearl Harbor, drawing the US into the war.
Asked in World War 2
What countries took part in World War 2?
Allies Vs Axis Powers: World War 2 involved most of the world's nations which fought for either of two military alliances - the Axis Powers and the Allies. The key members of the Allies of World War 1 - France, Britain, Russia and the United States once again fought against Germany but they also had to fight against their former allies of Italy and Japan which joined the Nazi Germany. Just like World War 1, World War 2 started in Europe with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, which is traditionally viewed as the beginning of war. Prior to 1939 Japan had invaded and was already at war with China. The United States refused to be drawn into the European war and remained neutral up until the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbour (by Japan). Countries that Joined the Allies: Most of the countries of world joined the Allies although some of them were controlled by pro-Axis regimes. The original anti-German military alliance consisting of Poland, France and Britain was eventually joined by the following countries (by alphabetical order): Aden Protectorate (former South Yemen) Albania Argentina Australia Belgium Bolivia Brazil British Malaya (today's Malaysia and Singapore) British Raj (today's India, Bangladesh, Burma and Pakistan) Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Cyprus Czechoslovakia Denmark Dominican Republic Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia and New Guinea) Ecuador El Salvador French Indochina (today's Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam) French Guiana Greece Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Iran Iraq Luxembourg Malta Mexico Mongolia The Netherlands Newfoundland New Zealand Nicaragua Norway Palestine Panama Peru Philippines Saudi Arabia Soviet Union Syria Trucial States (today's United Arab Emirates) Turkey The United States Uruguay Venezuela Yugoslavia The Allied coalition also included all African countries except for Italian colonies of Somalia, Ethiopia and Italian North Africa (present-day Libya), and Spanish and Portuguese colonies of Mozambique, Angola, Spanish Sahara (present-day Western Sahara) and Portuguese Guinea (today's Guinea-Bissau) which were neutral like their colonial rulers. Countries such as Italy which later left the Axis powers and joined the Allies are not considered Allied states. States that Allied Themselves with the Axis Powers: The Axis powers were officially founded by the Tripartite Pact signed between the Nazi Germany, Italy and Japan on September 27, 1940. Countries that allied themselves with the Axis powers include: Bulgaria Finland Hungary Romania Vichy France Thailand Formosa (present-day Taiwan) Manchuria The Axis powers created a number of puppet states in occupied areas but they usually are not considered Axis states although some of them actively collaborated with the Axis such as the newly established Independent State of Croatia and the Slovak Republic. However, both of them ceased to exist after the end of World War 2 and were rejoined with Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, respectively, both of which were Allied states. Neutral Countries: Few countries remained neutral during the entire World War 2: Switzerland Sweden Spain Portugal Iceland Ireland Afghanistan North Yemen Oman Nepal Tibet and the above mentioned Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Africa. germany, america, japan, russia, france, and england.
Asked in World War 2
What were the effects of World War 2?
Effects of World War 2 Complex and Detailed World War 2 was unusual in that for the first time in modern history (perhaps 500 years?), civilians were killed in greater numbers than soldiers. This was despite WWII being the bloodiest 'soldiers' war in all history. It is estimated that about 30,000,000 soldiers died in the conflict from battle ( a few million more from mistreatment at POWs, roughly half and half Allied and Axis). However, over 50,000,000 civilians died. Civilians were deliberately targeted by the bombing raids conducted by the British against German targets, this being British government policy during the conflict. American bombers tried to be more 'accurate' and only attack targets of some military value - industries, military targets - but still caused many civilian deaths. German retaliation again Britain was by necessity scattered, killing perhaps 1/10th the number killed by British air crews. Politically, World War 2 resulted in a weaker influence of Western Europe. Previously, Western Europe had shaped much of the way the world ran. After World War 2, though, when these nations were exhausted economically, militarily, etc. they began to BE shaped. The result was a bipolar equilibrium, that is, two superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. In Russia there were millions of civilians who died. Some were targets of Nazi racial policy (Jews) and political motivation (communist party members). German military actions also killed many civilians such as the 1942 air raid on Stalingrad that killed about 60,000. Many civilians died of starvation to a large extent due to the Russian government policy of destroying all food supplies they could during retreats. Otherwise, the Russian army used civilians of all ages as cannon fodder to rush German defensive positions (useful to identify gun emplacements or even to just force the Germans to use up ammunition). Russians forces continued their brutal ways as they entered Germany and Poland. Probably two million defenseless German civilians were murdered outright by their armies. Militarily, new technologies, from much improved tanks and airplanes to the deadly atomic bomb, had been developed to make wars faster and more brutal. Other developments that pertained to daily life were nylon, various other synthetics and other practical inventions. World War 2 brought about many changes. Women were finally granted the right to participate in voting in France and Italy. Women were also much more exposed to the work force as most of the men were off into the war. Here is more input: The Allied forces won WWII, and it pulled America out of the Great Depression, along with Great Britain and France who were still trying to pay us back from WWI. You see, we gave money to Germany to help pull them out of a depression, and Germany gave that money to Great Britain and France for war debts. GB and France would then give the money back to us, completing the circle. When we went into the Great Depression this money stopped flowing. That requires a LONG answer, but in general terms it could be said that: The world got to be divided in two (mainly). Bloc 1, led by the USA/UK and the other one by the USSR and later on, Communist China. Communism expanded over the world, colonialism started to disappear for good (in theory!), and later, in '48, the Republic of Israel was formed, among other countries, but due to its position in the map this one is very special, also let's not forget that the Jews were just surviving the Holocaust. There is a lot more in expansion of Commmunism and the cold war, and the foundation of U.N.O. but that is too long to be answered here. During the last year of WWII in Europe, the USSR had liberated the Eastern half of Europe, and the Allies had liberated the Western Half. After the war ended the USSR refused to retreat back to its old borders. (They DID capture this land fairly, had suffered the most deaths in the war, and when that happens you sorta do get pissed off...) When WWII ended it left Europe divided in two: Communism and Democracy. Patton during WWII had predicted that after the Axis was defeated the next enemy would be Communism. How right he was.! After WWII the US entered the longest "war" it had ever been in through its history. Aside from the Cold War, we do still suffer from effects of WWII. In the second Persian Gulf war its impossible for Germany or Japan to provide military support due to the fact that they can't build up any army larger than a defense force. In 1949, 12 nation set up the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Then in 1954, the South East Asia Treaty was created for defense of the Far East, created by Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. The good effects: More people had a job. Women had a chance to work. Independence for some nations. Hitler died. U.S.A had a end to their depression. The bad effects: Lots of people died. Bombs destroyed many buildings. Food shortage for nations. Children had their parents leave them to go to war. People lost family members. World was divided. Many countries became Communist. Countries were also short of food for a few years after the war. The brutality did not end with the end of the war either. In particular the Soviets continued to brutalize the people of eastern Europe, especially the German civilians. Other nations such as the Chezchs, Poles, and French also killed many German civilians after the war. The barriers of civilization that were broken down in WWI have never been repaired. WWII was merely the opening act to the modern warfare technique of deliberately killing civilians. Thus we see the wave of terrorist attacks against police, schools, and religious persons in Iraq and other nations right up to the the major world powers targeting each others populations centers with atomic weapons. The end of the WW II led to imperialistic domination of USA, USSR in the world. AS the result, world witnessed strong opposing Superpowers trying to influence Third World countries, fighting wars on their soil and killing their weak economies. WW II was not fought for people, but greedy leaders... COLD WAR that's the main result of WW II, arms race, nuclear warheads built-up, your so-called 'democracy' vs. Communism - that's what was the result of horrible accident of people's stupidity. Some of the effects of World War 2 were the destruction of cities and families and the unprecedentedly large number of deaths amongst civilians and soldiers. Those are the obvious friendus. Another after effect of World War 2 was the Cold War. The world lived with the threat of nucleur warfare between the two most powerful nations, the United States and the Soviet Union. Please have the hospitality of visiting a website: http://www.freewebs.com/dday060644 The site is a tribute to the men who fought in died in the Normandy landings on D-Day created by a 14 year old. (Something you should take the interest in learning about if you haven't already.) Overly Simplistic United Nations set up to avoid further world wars Germany divided among France, Britain, US and USSR cold war between US and USSR, potential nuclear war Japan abandons its military bases in the Pacific to US and Britain Korean war: North Korea, China, USSR v South Korea and US
Asked in World War 2, World War 1, Canada in WW2
How many people were killed in World War 2?
Estimates range from about 50-70 million killed in World War 2. The Wikipedia article "World War II Casualties" favours the relatively high figure of 72 million. Of these, 61 million were on the Allied side and 11 million were on the Axis side. The article gives a figure of 23 million dead for the Soviet Union and 20 million for China. These figures of course include civilian dead. (Note that the figure for China was recently revised sharply upwards from earlier estimates of about 11 million). For Germany the overall total is given as just under 7.4 million. When scholarly sources differ on the number of deaths in a country, a range of war losses is given, in order to inform readers that the death toll is uncertain or disputed. One also needs to know whether the statistics, especially for civilian dead, include deaths from war-related famine and disease. Please see the related links for details. During world war II over 60 million people were killed 5,341 million jillion
Asked in World War 2, WW2 Allied Powers
What countries made up the Allies in World War 2?
Allied countries are: From 1939: Australia New Zealand Nepal South Africa Canada Czechoslovakia From 1940: Norway Belgium Luxembourg Netherlands Free France Greece Yugoslavia From 1941: USSR Panama Costa Rica Dominican Republic El Salvador Haiti Honduras Nicaragua US China Guatemala Cuba Philippines From 1942: Indian Empire Mexico Brazil Ethiopia (Yugoslavia discussed if they should have joined the war in 1942 and withdrew all their troops. But they came back the next year) From 1943: Iraq (formerly a member of the Axis) Bolivia Colombia Iran From 1944: Liberia Peru Italy (formerly a member of the Axis) Romania (formerly a member of the Axis) Bulgaria (formerly a member of the Axis) San Marino (formerly a member of the Axis) Albania 1945 Only: Ecuador Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Turkey Egypt Lebanon Syria Saudi Arabia Argentina Chile Dates individual countries entered World War 2 are: Poland from 1 September 1939 Britain, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and France from 3 September 1939 Canada from 9 September 1939 Norway and Denmark from 9 April 1940 (upon invasion) Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands from 10 May 1940 (upon invasion) Czechoslovakian government-in-exile from 21 July 1940 Greece from 28 October 1940 (upon invasion) Yugoslavia from 27 March 1941 (left Axis after a coup) Soviet Union from 22 June 1941 (upon invasion by Nazi Germany) United States from 7 December 1941 (Pearl Harbor attack by Japanese) China from 9 December 1941 (parts of China already occupied by Japan since early 1930s) Mexico from 1 June 1942 Brazil from 22 August 1942 Iran from 9 September 1943 Ecuador from 2 February 1945 Paraguay from 8 February 1945 Peru from 12 February 1945 Uruguay from 14 February 1945 Turkey from 25 February 1945 Argentina from 28 March 1945 France USA Mexico Philippines Russia England New Zealand And many more America had the French and the British forces, we were up against the Germans and the japanese. Allied NationsEthiopia · China · Czechoslovakia · Poland · United Kingdom · India · France · Australia · New Zealand · South Africa · Canada · Norway · Belgium · Netherlands · Greece · Yugoslavia · Soviet Union · United States · Philippines · Mexico · Brazil Axis and Axis-aligned Enemies of the Allied Forces Bulgaria · Reorganized National Government of China · Croatia · Finland · Germany · Hungary · Iraq · Italy · Italian Social Republic · Japan · Manchukuo · Romania · Slovakia · Thailand · Vichy France Underground Resistance in cooperation with the Allied Forces against the Nazis and Japanese Austria · Baltic States · Belgium · Czech lands · Denmark · Estonia · Ethiopia · France · Germany · Greece · Hong Kong · India · Italy · Jewish · Korea · Latvia · Luxembourg · Netherlands · Norway · Philippines · Poland (Anti-communist) · Romania · Thailand · Soviet Union · Slovakia · Western Ukraine · Vietnam · Yugoslavia
Asked in History, Politics & Society, World War 2
How did the life of women differ after World War 2?
Asked in World War 2
What countries were neutral in World War 2?
These countries were neutral during the Second World War: Eire (Republic if Ireland) Sweden Switzerland Spain Afghanistan Portugal Denmark was officially neutral but was occupied by Germany throughout the war. Some countries in the Americas remained neutral until the closing few months of the war. These included Chile and Argentina Also you can add Andorra, Guatemala, Liechtenstein, Saudi Arabia and Yemen to the list. While the Northern Irish fought on the Allied side, the remainder of Ireland stayed neutral.
Asked in World War 2, History of the United States
How did World War 2 affect the US economy?
WWII and the US Economy World War 2 was one of the reasons the Great Depression ended. World War 2 gave jobs to thousands, if not millions, of people in the U.S. Soldiers were paid and some sent money home, men too old to be in the army replaced the men that were at war, and women worked in factories to build aeroplane's, ships, tanks, etc. WW2 created much needed jobs in factories involving the production of war supplies. It jump started us out of the Great Depression and boosted the stock market. The second world war helped us become the strongest country we are today. By mobilizing the unemployed, we aided our economy. Although war is a time of hardships and usually poverty, World War 2 had many positive effects for America. One point of prosper was economy. Some said that the Second World War put an end to the Great Depression. Many of America's products went overseas and by 1943, half of the country's production went overseas. Americans were then forced to buy less of such products, but soon spent there money on things such as newspapers, movies, and promotion toward the war because of the shortage of supplies. From 1941-1944 newspapers sold daily increased four folds. Hollywood made over 2,500 motion pictures during the war also. In 1942, the War Advertising Council was formed. It conducted more than 100 campaigns to sell war bonds, secure blood donations, conserve food, and inspire enlistments. And with the change of spending money also came the change of earning money. Farmers made $20 billion in 1944 unlike the late 1930s, which had an average of only $8 billion. The war also caused a shortage of employees. This raised the annual earnings to $44 billion compared to 1939's $13 billion. With the men gone at war, women would soon fill in those empty jobs to support their families. Government propaganda encouraged women to do their patriotic duty by leaving their homes and entering the workplace. At the wartime peak in July 1944, 19 million women were employed. But women workers weren't the only group that enlarged during the war, but also child labor increased over two folds. Because of these factors, the average family income rose over 25% from 1941-1945. In the beginning of the war, 1941, the national income was around $95 billion dollars, but by 1944 it rose to $150 billion. World War 2 greatly improved our economy. Women got the taste of working outside the home, the stock market was on the uprising again. People were starting to make money and become prosperous. The government used ads to help boost liberty bonds, blood donations, reserving supplies for the troops and the entertainment industry. America proved to other nations that we are a strong country. Germany was really on the back hand of the USA 's stock market plunge. After the hyperinflation in Germany the USA gave out billions of marks worth of loans to help rebuild the economy. When the stock markets fell in the US the US demanded all there loans payed back ASAP. then Germany was back to were it started. They could not spend it due to rationing, one sees the raise of excessive buying. This increase in purchasing lead to more factory jobs, etc... Also now more and more women were joining the work force - again increasing production. Furthermore the idea of the shopping mall spread from eight at the end of the WWII to 3,840 but 1960. The U.S. was in large part lifted out of the great depression by selling strategic goods and materials like tools, machinery, petroleum, metals, and grain to both sides since we were neutral at first. Once we were sucked in by the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the economy shifted into overdrive and measures had to be taken to keep inflation from soaring out of control. After the war was over, the seeds of our modern "Consumer based" economy had been sown and grew like wildfire. Technology had taken great leaps forward. Before the war women rarely worked outside the home and only in limited professions. Afterwards the women who had worked to support the war and replace men in the Services liked the money and independence their own jobs gave them and they stayed in the workforce. Finally, we shifted in a massive way from mostly farming to mostly manufacturing jobs and services. Europe was devastated by the war but the U.S. emerged more militarily and economically powerful than ever. Economists of the Keynesian school propagated this idea that World War 2 was good for the US economy. In particular, a government economist who did central planning and price fixing during the war named Paul Samuelson wrote economics textbooks that became widely used in schools. Most modern economists these days are not Keynesian. Destruction is never productive. War does not boost an economy. The benefits are short lived and shallow. Many economists believed that FDR prolonged the depression for many years with his "New Deal" policies and therefore the depression lasted into World War 2. The war did not end the depression. The end of the war ended the depression. Going into World War II, the US was in one of the worst economic downturns of the country's history. Money was allocated for the wartime effort and some of the "New Deal" promises were dropped to the wayside. As the US entered the war, job demand began to increase on the home front as people were needed to manufacture war supplies. The need was so great, not only men were being hired but also women. By the mid 1940s, the pre-wartime unemployment rate dropped over 10%.
Asked in World War 2, Decade - 1940s
What was life like in World War 2 in fashion music culture art etc?
If you really want to see what the fashions and music and art were like I suggest you watch the movies made during the wartime. There are probably a hundred movies you could see. There are books in the Library too. Hair was curled in curlers and worn curly and wavy. Straight hair on women was curled but the young girls had their hair braided. Some of the women braided their hair too. Many women had short, wavy or curly hair. The men had the hairstyle with the left hand part and it would be consider cut close to the head. Men wore suits, women wore dresses and no pants unless doing manufacturing for the war effort. Kids: The girls wore dresses and sometimes pants or shorts. Boys wore striped tee shirts or button down shirts with blue jeans and sneakers. The girls wore Mary Jane dress shoes or sneakers. Music was the swing band style music like Tommy Dorsey did. Women wore aprons over their dresses when they worked in the house. Some wore them from the time they got up until they changed into nightgowns or flannel pajamas. Many people fashioned themselves after the Hollywood stars.
Asked in World War 2, Germany in WW2, US in WW2
How many Allied casualties were there during the occupation of Germany after World War 2?
Casualties after V-E Day The exact numbers are hard to come by. I have read as high as 700. I don't know for sure. It took 7 years to eliminate all Nazi sympathizers. Here is more input: The final guerrilla resistance was not stamped out until 1948. They sniped, they planted bombs, and one of their favorite tricks was to stretch a rope across a road at the right height so that people riding in an open jeep would catch it in the neck. This could result in a broken neck or outright decapitation. The occupying forces executed guerillas when they caught them, the British used beheadings, and even resorted to taking and executing hostages. Here is recommended reading: "The Last Nazis: SS Werewolf Guerrilla Resistance in Europe, 1944-47" by Perry Biddiscombe; Stroud, Glouchestershire (Charleston, SC); Tempus Publishing, Ltd. 2000 ISBN: 0 7524 1793 2 It will thoroughly cover the topic of Allied Occupation Troops after V-E Day. COMMENT It's a strange thing, but Perry Biddiscombe's book is the only work that talks about 'Werewolf' guerrillas and it should be viewed very skeptically. There's no lack of American and British veterans who were in Germany in 1944-48. How many of them have mentioned areas that were dangerous because of Nazi guerrillas? On the contrary, most comment on how completely broken the German will to fight was. Biddescombe offers no evidence to support his assertion. Surely, were there such resistance, the places, dates, names of victims, etc. would be available. Lacking such supporting evidence, one is tempted to dismiss the claim as urban myth. There was indisputably criminal violence in the aftermath of WWII, and the US Constabulary in Germany did have casualties, but the last confirmed instance of organized resistance was in Aachen in March of 1945. It seems that the work includes incidents that took place during the war. It is widely suspected that talk of 'Werewolf' guellirras was 'talked up' by the Bush adminstration in order to try to explain insurgency in Iraq.
Asked in World War 2, War and Military History, D-Day
What does the 'D' in D-Day stand for?
The 'D' in D-Day "D-Day" and "H-Hour" are general terms used for the day and hour to mark the beginning of an important event. By far the most well-known D-Day is June 6, 1944, when the Allied invasion of German-occupied France began in WWII. The "D" was used to mark the day that a particular operation was to begin. Each operation had a D-day and an H-hour. Because D-Day of Operation Overlord was the largest amphibious assault in military history, it became the popular expression to refer to June 6, 1944, and was not used to mark the first day of an operation thereafter - as far as I know. It basically took on the persona that the phrase "9/11" has taken to refer to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon. General Eisenhwer and Winston Churchill may have tried to give the "D" an actual meaning for the benefit of the press and the civilians, but previous to that, it did not stand for anything except "day" (as noted previously). Another response Indeed, D = Day and H = Hour, but I will elaborate a little: The invasion (or any major operation) was planned way in advance without a date being assigned for commencement. This was done for security reasons and to keep the element of surprise so that the enemy response would be minimal. For purposes of planning, you assumed the operation would start at D-Day and H-hour, with the day and time to be determined later. Then you can plan for how things will proceed, starting from Day 1 - 0 hour and start counting as in D+1 day, D+2 day, etc. Only at the last minute did anyone know what day the whole thing would actually take place. With June 6, 1944, for example, they had to wait on the weather, amongst other things.
Asked in World War 2, Holocaust
Was the Holocaust the same thing as World War 2?
No. World War 2 in Europe was a major war between the Allies (Britain, the U.S., Russia, Canada and many other countries on the one hand) and Germany, Italy and various other countries on the other. In Europe was initially triggered by the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 and lasted from 1939-1945. The Holocaust refers to: The Nazi genocide of the Jews in 1941-45 during World War 2. In all, a total of about six million Jews were murdered. In addition, many others were murdered on the basis of group identity, including 'gypsies', Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, Polish intellectuals, Communists and others. Historians generally do not include these groups in the Holocaust. The Holocaust was a kind of 'subplot' of World War 2. Saying this is not intended to diminish its significance but to put it in the context of World War 2 Some historians, such as Christopher Browning, see the Holocaust as part of a wider campaign by the Nazis to rid the world of what the latter called 'Jewish Bolshevism' ('Jewish Communism'). ___ Moreover: When the Nazis invaded Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, and the Soviet Union ('Russia') it was for land. The Nazis invaded country after country, and this brought more and more Jews under German control. As a result, the Nazis' self-inflicted 'Jewish problem' grew and grew for them. (In particular, the invasion of Poland and, later, of the Soviet Union, brought a huge increase in the number of Jews under Nazi rule). The war shielded the Holocaust from outside intervention, in much the same way as World War 1 shielded the Ottoman Turkish genocide of the Armenians in 1915. The Nazis conducted the Holocaust largely in Poland, which is difficult to reach from Allied bomber bases in, say, Britain.
Asked in World War 2, Australia in WW2
How and why did Australia's relationship with Britain and the US change during World War 2?
Australia and Britain were very close, mainly due to the fact that Britain founded Australia, and Australia considered them their "mother country". However in World War 2, the relationship started to change, and it started with the British Prime Minister Churchill diverting Australia's 6th and 7th Divisions to reinforce their own troops in Burma when Australia needed them for their defense due to the Japanese advance. This was done without consultation, but eventually, Australian Prime Minister Curtin, managed to get the troops back. This caused some of the changes between Australia and Great Britain. Another reason is because Britain could not help Australia when they needed them most, even when Australia helped Britain when they needed it. This caused PM Curtin to publicly appeal to the US for military assistance, and this was done on 27 December, 1941 (I think). The US came immediately, as they were also eager to drive back the Japanese who bombed Pearl Harbour. The US commander Douglas MacArthur arrived in March the next year and became Supreme Commander of all Allied Forces in the South-West Pacific, and Australia became his headquarters for command. The US military assistance was vital in driving back the Japanese, and they were considered as saviors by Australians. However, as time wore on, the relationship began to sour, with Australian commanders resenting MacArthur's arrogant manner and the way he deployed Australian troops and undervalued their efforts. Sometimes, fights would occur, which occasionally became serious, resulting with deaths. However, the US did help Australia drive the Japanese back and win the war. The original relationship between Britain and Australia resumed, but with Australia being more cautious and independent. Ever since WWI, Australia's relationship with its traditional ally and mother country Britain had been waning. The senseless slaughter of the ANZAC's at Galipoli is credited to the 'birth' of the new Australian nation and spirit. Australians decided that their troops would never be put in complete control of the British ever again. So Australia (still closely tied with Britain because it was a colony) went in search for a new 'mother' nation. The Americans were the answer. America (A growing world power) and Australia announced that it would now work as closely with the Americans as possible. Despite all this when WW2 broke out the Australian soldiers were still sent off to help the British fight 'their war' and were not allowed to withdraw when the troops were needed to defend their own country. The big transfer of 'mother' nations came when the Japanese began to expand further and further into south east Asia, and threatening Australia. The Australian PM appealed to the US President directly and gave the message that Australia would be at Americas 'beck-and-call' as long as they helped fight the Japanese, prevent invasion of Australia and free south east Asia. With the bombing of Pearl Harbour America not only entered the war but sent huge numbers of army units to the south pacific to help fight off the Japanese. The alliance of the US and Australia began during WW1 but really took off during ww2 and both countries are still closely aligned today. Britain's Prime Minister Churchill, without the consultation with Australia's prime minister Curtin commanded Australian troops to fight in the middle east for Britain's defenses. Also because Britain in the end was having enough trouble of her own dealing with Nazi Germany, Australia realised she could not rely on Britain anymore and turned to the US. Britain is Australians mother country; Australia looked up to Britain for everything. When War was declared by Britain the prime minister of Australia also declared war. �It is my melancholy duty to inform you officially that in consequence of persistence by Germany and her invasion of Poland, Great Britain has declared war upon her and that, as a result, Australia is also at war.� When Australia needed its troops at Australia because Japan was attacking they got them back. Australia looked to Britain for help but they said no and this is were America came in. Australia's relationships during WW2 undertook serious changes that still affect us today. Australia stopped looking to Britain for the support it used to and started looking to America. American and Australian troops disliked each other but worked together on that battle field. The Americans were brought into the war due to Pearl Harbour and Australia formed a relationship with them almost immediately. I think that this downfall in Australian and Britain's friendship wasn't smart because even though Australia is still in the commonwealth and ruled by the queen, we still look to America and our allies with America rather than Britain. Australia had always depended on a great power for protection and that power had always been Britain, the Mother Country. Now Britain was fighting for its own survival against Germany and the Nazis. Britain's Empire in the far East was falling to Japan. So instead of focusing on Britain for protection, Australia's interests shifted to America. John Curtin (Australia's PM at the time) soon realized that the US alone has the power and capacity to assist Australia if ever there was an invasion from Japan, which was foreseen. Also the fact that Britain did not come to Australia's aid when they were under attack weakened their relationship somewhat. Australia was just a minion of the "Mother Country" to be protected at all costs. This is just my opinion, but here goes. the ANZACS was part of the commonwealth and her military served at the pleasure of the King, under "British Officers" In WW1 the Aussies felt their men were used as cannon fodder (which they were) and they could see the same thing happening again They thought the Brits had left their men to die in SE Asia. The opinion of most Australians is that the British will fight to the last Australian. And by the way they were no better treated by the Americans. They have been sorely treated from the time of Galipoli until now. Australia's relationship between England and the USA endured a critical turning point as a result of the war. When the war broke out in 1939, Australia considered itself apart of the British Empire, and has always supported Britain's interests. So in 1939 when WW11 broke out, Australia declared its support for Britain and troops of the 6th, 7th and 9th battalion were sent to the Middle East, 27000 Australians in the air force were involved in the Empire Air Training Scheme that provided air crews to fight in Britain, and half the Australian navy went to the Mediterranean to assist the war effort. There was always the mutual agreement that if support was required in Australia, Britain would immediately come to her aid. The reality was that when Australia was attacked in 1942, Britain failed to keep their promise to Australia and did not provide support or aid. Australia became aware that they were both vulnerable and alone, and since the British government had neither the will nor power to support Austria, the Australian government turned to the USA. The realisation that the British empire had failed to support Australia was an important turning point in Australia's relationship with Britain. The USA did come to Australia's aid in 1942 but the motive was very much in America's self interest. Given the danger of Japanese advances form the North and the failure of Britain's support, the Australian government had little choice but to comply with the US military plans and strategy. Britain was no longer considered as Australia's protector and provider but instead America resumed the role. WW11 marked the beginning for Australia's relationship with America that would be further demonstrated through Australia's support to the USA in future wars. Note: The war against Germany and Italy is commonly referred to as the "European theater", however, reference to this war against Germany and Italy (and other nations) also includes actions in North Africa and the Middle East. Australian relations at the beginning of WWII were much the same as they had been in WWI. Australia still felt the need to support Britain as a 'mother' country and in 1939 went to war for her. Men joined the war effort such as to support Britain and to enforce Australia in her own right. During WWII Australian's believed that they were safe: both because of the facts that the country is so secluded and because in Singapore stood a British naval force that would act as a front line between Australia and any impending attack from Japan. The fall of Singapore to the Japanese Army in 1942 is considered to be Britain's worst defeat in WWII. The fall of Singapore was not only a humiliation to Britain but it also worked as a shock to Australia. Australia felt the full force of WWII for the first time as the Japanese threat was on their borders. Australia felt the loss of Singapore severely as it had been a major defense between them and Britain. In 1941 after Pearl Harbour but before the fall of Singapore PM Curtin of Australia made a powerful appeal. This appeal however was not directed to Britain but to America. "Without any inhibition of any kind, i make it clear that Australia looks to America, free of any pangs of the traditional kinship with Britain..." He went on to say that he had plan which involved America as a keystone. The Sydney Morning herald published in 1942: "Australia is the last bastion between Japan and America. If Australia goes, America is wide open..." In some opinions 'Britain would fight to the last Australia. In others 'Britain had left Australians to die in Singapore'. Whatever the reason whether the British had too much on their plate or they just felt that Australians would always look up to them, when Australia was in the open, Britain was not there to help. As a result of this Australia turned to America for aid. Australia complied with American plans and strategy to fight Japan. In the end it was not Britain we turned to for help but America, and this was a major step towards our position with them today. Australia's alliance with Britain and the USA changed during the World War 2. Winston Churchill wanted to send the troops to Burma, to fight and protect the land for Britain, whilst John Curtin wished to send the troops to South East Asia to fight and protect Australia, and to prevent the arrival of the Japanese coming into Australian Territory. He established that Australia would be better-off to protect their own country, and America would assist them in protecting their country. Australia's relationship with Britain changed for various reasons. Australia at the time had little people and we were not a very powerful country. With little economic statues (after the Great Depression) and little men to fight for war, Australia wasn't very strong to fight for war and protect there own country. Britain was one of the most powerful and richest countries with headquarters all over the world including Singapore. Because Britain to Australia was known as the mother country, when Britain decided to go to war so did Australia as they felt it was there duty and had to be loyal. Britain became self fish and 100s of 1000's of men were over fighting in the Mediterranean and Middle East to support Britain and their country, and Australia had no one supporting the home front. After Japan entering the war and bombing pearl harbour invading Indonesia, Papua, New Guinea etc and Australia being there next target, Britain head quarters in Singapore falling, things for Australia were heating up. the prime minister began to realise we need a better allies, USA was not involved until pearl harbour was bombed and then after discussion USA and Australia joined forces and Australia demanded all their troops from Europe and Britain to return home and fight for their country. This is how and why the relationship with Britain ceased and USA's grew bigger with us. Australia's relationship with Britain and America changed in ww2 as before ww2, Australia was very loyal to its mother country of Britain. It always went to Britain's help, like the ANZACS in ww1. The same thing happened in ww2. When Churchill asked for men from Menzies, Australia gave. But our national security was undermined when the Japanese were taking over the Pacific. They quickly took China, Burma, Thailand, Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula. This caused worry back home which increased when the British warships, the Repulse and the Prince of Wales were sunk off the Malay coast on the 10th December 1941. This was a major blow for Britain's naval strength in the region and Singapore's defenses. Due to its lack of security in the region, Australia looked to America for help on the 27th December 1941. Curtin said,I make it quite clear that Australia looks to America free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the UK. This said, Singapore fell on the 15th February 1942 with the biggest mass surrender of all time. (85000 Allied troops including 15000 Australians) Britain was Australian Mother country, Australia looked up to Britain for everything. When Britain declared they were going into war, naturally Prime minister of Australia also declared war." It is my melancholy duty to inform you officially that in consequence of persistence by Germany and her invasion of Poland, Great Britain has declared war upon her and that, as a result, Australia is also at war" Australia was a weak country with little people and were suffering after the depression, they needed Britain. Australia soon needed help itself, they were threatened by the Japanese. They turned to Britain for help, but their mother country didn't help at all. Prime Minister John Curtin ordered the Australian troops who had completed action in the middle east to return to Australia. Winston Churchill had no part of it, he wanted the Australian troops to continue assisting with England's defeat of Germany. It was obvious that Britain could no longer help Australia and so they were on their own. Australia was still closely tied with Britain because it was a colon but they had no choice other then to look for a new 'mother' nation. Australia then made a decision that still affects today, Australia decided to turn to America for the help they needed. At first the change to mother nations went well. The Australian solders got on with the American soldiers, but not for long. The American Governor General started to become very biased towards the American soldiers. The Australian soldiers soon started to resent the Americans as they got many more rights, and the Australian girls found that the American men were interesting and paid more attention to them. They were described as "over paid, over sexed and over here". Not only did the American soldiers get more rights, but when an Australian soldier did do something great they weren't rewarded for there bravery and skills. During the war Australia looked to USA when threatened with invasion since USA would suffer greatly from Australia's invasion and Britain was too busy in Europe. This alliance with the USA made Australia less Dependant on Britain. After the war Australia became more independent since it was less dependent on Britain. Australia's relationship stayed strong with Britain throughout the war, their friendship didn't fail, although there were some points where Australian soldiers thought it was all for nothing After war broke out in Europe and the Middle-East, in September 1939, Britain (and her colonies) declared war on Germany, thus bringing Australia into the war. At the time, Australia saw Britain as its major source of Protection and security, and decided to respect the ties of Kinship it had with Britain, consequently entering the second world war. However when the Japanese attacked the US naval base, Pearl Harbour(Hawaii), on the 7th December 1941, the war was extended to the Pacific. On February 15th 1942, Britain's naval base, in Singapore, was also attacked by the Japanese. This left Australia vulnerable, and John Curtin, the Australian Prime Minister, turned to the USA for help. The USA were already fighting in the Pacific, and accepted Curtin's plea for help. US troops began to arrive in Australia, influencing Australia's culture, and triggered the change in how Australian society saw itself - as an extension of Great Britain, to 'true-blue' Australian. Sydney and Newcastle were next to be attacked by Japanese migit Submarines in May 1942, but after the defeat of the Japanese in the Battle of Mid-way (Papua New Guinea), the tables were soon turned on the Japanese, soon bringing the American and Australian troops, (under command of the US general MacArthur) to victory, and ending the Japanese threat of invasion to Australia, (or so they thought that was their plan at the time, but that matter is still being debated today). After originally having only strong ties with Britain, during WW1, Australia looked more towards the United States of America for assistance in WW2, extending its links of kinship, marketing and trade, to around the world. I've missed out some stuff... but o'well Australia's relationship with Britain changed for various reasons. Australia at the time had little people and we were not a very powerful country. with little economic statues (after the Great Depression) and little men to fight for war, Australia wasn't very strong to fight for war and protect there own country. Britain was one of the most powerful and richest countries with headquarters all over the world including Singapore.Because Britain to Australia was known as the mother country, when Britain decided to go to war so did Australia as they felt it was there duty and had to be loyal. Britain became self fish and 100s of 1000's of men were over fighting in the Mediterranean and middle east to support Britain and their country, and Australia had no one supporting the home front. After japan entering the war and bombing pearl harbour invading Indonesia papua new guinea etc and Australia being there next target, and Britain head quarters in Singapore falling things for Australia were heating up. and the prime minister began to realise we need a better ally .USA was not involved until pearl harbour was bombed and then after discussion USA and Australia joined forces and Australia demanded all their troops from Europe and Britain to return home and fight for their country.This is how and why the relationship with Britain ceased and USA's grew bigger with us. Here's a few contributing facts to the change in attitude towards England during the second world war. Australia, as a former English colony was still very 'English' had always relied on England to protect the country from invaders. With a powerfully manned English outpost in Singapore, Australia always hada a feeling of safety and never worried about building up a powerful defence force. During the war English forces were stretched thin and when the threat of invasion from the powerful Japanese loomed over the Country their was a sudden feeling of vulnerability, which was escalated to an almost intense fear when two of the strongest English Naval Vessels were sunk off the coast of Singapore by an overwhelming Japanese force. With the Germans wreaking havoc in Europe, and now Japan over running the Pacific, the defenseless nation of Australia felt it was time to develop a sense of independence, and started enlistment for a second AIF (Australian Imperial Forces) division. Australia's relationships during WW2 undertook serious changes that still affect us today. Australia stopped looking to Britain for the support it used to and started looking to America. American and Australian troops disliked each other but worked together on that battle field. The Americans were brought into the war due to Pearl Harbour and Australia formed a relationship with them almost immediately. Australia was a self governing dominion within the British Empire. As such it depended on Britain for its defense and came to Britain's aid when the war broke out. In 1940 and 1941 Britain was committing virtually every resource it had and every one it could gather from the Empire, to fighting Germany. Australia was sending all the troops it could spare to be used in that fight. Most of them were in North Africa. Suddenly Japan attacked in the Pacific. Britain had no additional strength to use to meet her obligations to defend Australia. Much of Australia's strength was on the other side of the world. The United States stepped forward and assumed the responsibility of providing for Australia's defense. Although Australia remained a British Dominion, it came under the protection of the United States. Naturally its relations with both of those countries changed significantly. After the fall of Singapore the Australian people and army didn't look to Britain for it's defense anymore. The Australians felt that they had been betrayed by the British, instead they looked to the yanks for help and after the successful defense of New Guinea, Australia and Yankee relations improved even though there were constant fights between the American and Australian army (most notably the Battle of Brisbane and Battle of Fremantle). How Did Australia's relationship with England and the USA change during World War II? At the beginning of World War 2 Australia's links with Britain were close but this wasn't the case at the end of the war, Australia had looked towards America for its own safety as Britain had proven that they weren't powerful as they use to be, the fall of Singapore being an example that effected Australia's links with Britain as they surrounded without even trying to fight back. John Curtin made a new years speech about Australia looking towards America as he believed that Britain wouldn't be able to defend Australia if they were under attack so he decided to make Australia's links with America stronger. Curtin had arguments with Churchill the Prime minister of Britain about bringing Australia's troops back form the Middle East as Churchill moved them there without even asking Curtin. Churchill apologized and sent the troops back to Australia's mainland to defend as what Curtin wanted, this weakening the links between Australia and Britain more. With America by our sides Australian fought the Pacific War together, after the war America, New Zealand and Australia singed a mutual defense agreement. Can I just add, that the relationship was not between England and such forth, it was between Britain. The Scot's and the Irish had a great deal to play in the British empire - Going as far as Glasgow being known as the "Second City of the Empire". Also, the founding of Britain was due to the Scottish king inheriting the English throne. During WW2, Australia was fighting away from home. Then the allies started to attack Asia and the Pacific region. When this happened, Australia realized that Britain was losing its touch. Australia realized that if anything was to happen to them, Britain would not be able to protect them, thus drifting away. Meanwhile, America was not involved in the war. when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the US was drawn into the war, so Australia and America worked together, and formed a close friendship. After the bombing in of the British base in Singapore, Australia slightly lost trust in Britain and Britain was busy, so Australia went to US for help. The United States agreed because the location of Australia could also benefit them during the war and they could help protect Australia. Australia's relationship with Britain changed because Australia was becoming a independent country and they were to fend for themselves. America was one of the most powerful countries, and still is, which meant that they had major influence over all the other countries. The biggest change was the difference in perceived threat between Germany and Japan. Germany was bombing England, Japan had bombed Darwin. If you're Australian you want to repel the Japanese, if you're English you want to repel the Germans. Generally, the UK was in the 'driver's seat' in the relationship between the UK and Australia and England's obvious bias to fight the Germans first obviously caused some resentment in Australia (at least until the threat against Australia subsided). Australian Alliances WW2 Australia had troops in Europe fighting for the British Empire. Due to the threat of invasion from Japan Australia wanted assistance and troops sent home to ensure that the threat of invasion did not eventuate. Britain denied this request however America offered assistance and thus General McAuthor came to Australia and since then Australia has had close political ties with America. The shortest answer is to say that Australia felt very 'let down' by Britain in WWII. Australia had sent, loyally, troops to almost every engagement of the British including the Boer War and WWI, and it was always expected that in return Britain and its supreme navy would protect Australia in time of need (the country being too vast and population too small to mount any reasonable self-defense at that time). With the fall of Singapore in WWII to the Imperial Japanese Army, the British presence in Asia and the Pacific was over. With Britain unable to spare troops from the European theater, and unwilling even to allow Australian troops in the Middle East to return to defend Australia, the spirit in Australia turned from one of support for Britain to disappointment in Britain. But focusing on the immediate need which was to prevent Japanese invasion of Australia, Australians also recognized the urgent need then to find an alternative Big Brother to protect them. In came the US with their massive forces in the Pacific. From that time until now, the US relationship has been the mainstay of Australian defense policy, hoping as earlier with Britain that if ever an enemy chose to attack Australia, the US would help out. In the meantime the price Australia pays for this 'insurance' is to send troops to most of the US' main military actions such as Iraq. So the change in WWII was a truly dramatic change in direction in defense reliance. Britain was taking on Hitler, such a small country taking on the biggest threat at the time and Australia expected Britain to send over British troops (even though they were 100% tied up taking on Nazi Germany) and risk loosing Britain's war to help them. If Britain wasn't taking on the biggest threat at the time, then they would have helped Australia like agreed. Alongside taking on Germany, Britain was taking on Italy and the Soviet Union Germany had taken over (or allied to), Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Belgium, France, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Egypt, Malta, Japan. Britain was taking them on, yet Australia became annoyed because Britain did what they did and effectively helped win the war. Relations should not have gone sour simply because Britain was fighting in their own war. Sure Australia helped out Britain, but the difference was at anytime Australia was helping Britain, they weren't in their own major war at the time.
What is the value of World War 2 ration books with all the unused stamps intact?
World War 2 Ration Books The war ration was not very high. The war ration stamps are very common and the demand for them in the collector's circle is not very high. A complete book might get $10, whereas partial books and single stamps are not going to be anywhere near as valuable. The sentimental value is of more value, as it reminds people of the struggles and their contribution to the war effort. I agree completely with the sentimental value when finding out that in 1945+, one had to use these stamps to purchase food. Families also had to do an inventory of what they had in their pantry, and they would have to actually subtract their stamps from the book, based on their inventory. Rationing ended in 1945; ration stamps obviously have no objective economic value. But they are collected by some people, so they have subjective collectible value. The best way to find the current going prices would be to search eBay auctions for stamps like yours. Fewer of the ration stamps were used in Books 2 & 3, making them less valuable. Click on the Related Link for more information.
Asked in World War 2, Japan in WW2, History of Japan
Why wasn't Hirohito executed as a war crime in world war 2?
By getting to keep their Emperor was the one condition the Japanese insisted on before they would surrender. The Japanese believed he was a living god, but he had to admit to the Japanese people that he was not divine, not a god. He spoke to the Japanese people in a radio address at that time, and it was the first time the people had ever heard his voice. The US and the British had made a big deal out of insisting on "unconditional surrender" of the Axis powers, because Roosevelt had shot off his mouth to reporters at the Casablanca Conference saying that this was the policy they had agreed on. This was a mistake. It allowed the Germans to make propaganda saying the Allies were out for the complete destruction of Germany, therefore we have no choice but to fight on to the bitter end.
Can you explain simply why the Nazis hated the Jews?
Putting it as simply as possible: The Nazis thought that the German Jews were 'alien', 'un-German' and a 'corrupting influence' on Germany and that they were encouraging immorality. The Nazis believed that the Jews were Communists (and that Communism was a specifically Jewish ideology). There were strange conspiracy theories that claimed that the Jews were trying to achieve 'world domination'. The Nazis said that the Jews were enemies of Germany, and that Jews and Germans were locked in a struggle to the death. (This was another of those conspiracy theories that many Nazis took seriously). The Nazis believed that the Jews had made Germany lose World War 1. The Nazis subscribed to racialist theories that claimed that the Jews were inferior to others. However, Nazi propaganda also portrayed them as very clever indeed, very dangerous and close to achieving world domination: the two don't even begin to fit. With the start of World War 2 in September 1939 Hitler became obsessed with the idea that 'the Jews' had started the war. Earlier, 'religious' hostility to Judaism had often demonized the Jews and painted them as sinister and evil. Because some Jews were affluent and influential, they represented political positions in opposition to Hitler, and were targeted like others he saw as rivals. All this was much more important than stories about what a Jew might or might not have done to Hitler in his childhood. There is no firm evidence that Hitler was anti-Jewish before about 1916. Beware of naive explanations. For fuller friendus click on the related questions below.
What countries were part of the Allies and Axis in World War 2?
On the "Allies" side : Mainly the US, Russia, and Great Britain, along with France, China, Canada. Poland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, the Netherlands, Czechslovakia, Belgium, Denmark and Norway also joined the allies. The Soviet Union was initially part of the Axis Powers but switched sides so did Finland and Romania. By 1945, almost the whole world were at war with the Axis. In all, there was a total of 51 allied nations by the end of the war. On the "Axis" side: primarily Germany, Italy, and Japan. The axis also included minor powers such as Finland, Slovenia, Hungary, Manchkuo, Romania, Thailand, Persia and more. ~Italy also changed sides half way through the war. (Correction= Italy surrendered halfway through the war and had to give resources to avoid invasion) ~Also To Add To The Allies List Is The German Resistance Yes Germany helped the allies. Most of Them were Originally From the German Empire, but quit when the Nazi party took over Germany The major axis powers during World War II were German, Japan and Italy. The allies, who opposed the axis powers, were comprised of the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, China, Poland, the Netherlands and Belgium.
Asked in World War 2
How many countries took part in World War 2?
There were 104 countries either involved in or affected by World War II. Virtually every country was involved in one form or another. Even the neutral counties were harmed by their neighbors being at war and unable to trade as in the past. If you want a list of combatants Allies and Axis powers their are good reference pages on Wikipedia. (see Related Links) Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Chile, China, Colombia,Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, British India (now India, Pakistan & Bangladesh), Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaya, Malta, Manchukuo, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Newfoundland, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Northern Rhodesia, Norway, Oman, Palestine, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Samoa, American Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia, Soviet Union / Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thailand, Tonga, Transjordan, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, Yemen, Yugoslavia It's called a world war because most countries were involved to some degree even though they may not have been fighting.
What are arguments for and against the atomic bombings of Japan being justified?
Here are summaries of opinions from FAQ Farmers on the moral or immoral nature of the decision to bomb Japan with nuclear weapons. Fewer Americans died * The war in the Pacific had been raging for almost four years. The two battles immediately preceeding the bomb decision were Iwo Jima and Okinawa, two battles where the Japanese fought to the death and the cost in American casualties was horrific. It was predicted that the invasion of the Japanese mainland at the Island of Kyushu -- scheduled for November of 1945 -- would be even worse. The entire Japanese military and civilian population would fight to the death. American casualties -- just for that initial invasion to get a foothold on the island of Japan would have taken up to an estimated two months and would have resulted in up to 75,000 to 100,000 casualties -- up to 20,000 dead! And that was just the beginning. Once the island of Kyushu was captured by U.S. troops, the remainder of Japan would follow. You can just imagine the cost in injuries and lives this would take. * Estimated US casualties for Operation OLYMPIC & CORONET were 250,000 along with 1,000,000 Japanese civilian casualties. In the parlance of the young, "this is a no-brainer." * It is not beyond the possibility that a million or more Americans could have been killed had we landed. The Japanese had correctly guessed where we intended to land, and were ready and waiting for us. The casualties would have been high. One American tanker walked around the area he was to have assaulted had we landed. According to him most of the "roads" marked on his map were not roads, but simply foot paths. He felt that tanks would have played a very small part in the fighting. It would have been more fighting against caves, and suicide attacks. * The bomb was dropped with a desire to SAVE LIVES. It is a matter of math. How many Americans lost their lives fighting how many Japanese at Tarawa, Iwo Jima, Okinawa. The mathematical formula showed the closer we got to Japan the more we lost. Next, one must calculate how many Japanese military people were still in Japan. Add to that figure the fact that women were being trained to fight. Before you say the women would not fight please remember that many women on Okinawa committed suicide fearing all the stories they were told about what the Americans would do to them if they surrendered. * Perhaps your grandfathers were among the 18-26 year old American GI's who had managed to survive the war in Europe. If so, on August 6, 1945, they were with approximately a million other boys on the way to the Pacific. At least 50-80% of them were expected to die in the invasion of the Japanese home islands. Since most of these young men were not yet married, your grandfathers had not yet married your grandmothers, so if they did not come back, then your parents would never be born and therefore you would not be here to second-guess historical decisions. * People can argue all they want about what the true U.S. government estimates of U.S. casualties in an invasion of Japan were. Doesn't matter. I can guarantee you that 99.9% of the soldiers, sailors and airmen involved in the actual combat, or training for the upcoming invasion were convinced that the invasion of Japan would be a bloodbath. I have never heard or read of any American military person who was involved in the late stages of fighting in the war with Japan who was not glad that the atomic bombs were dropped to end the war. Japanese civilians died * Yes, war is war, and death in war is redundant, you must realize, that death in war is only legal if it is military death and not civilian death, unless the civilians pick up arms and fight back (then in that case they would be considered combatants). * To say that the U.S. was justified in dropping the bombs, one would have to believe the maxim "the end justifies the means." * Bombs in general should seldom be used especially those of this magnitude. Fewer Japanese civilians died * The largest number of people killed in a single B-29 raid was not at Hiroshima, but at Tokyo, with conventional firebombs. Some 80,000-100,00 people killed. The problem was that even with the savage firebombing, the pathetic idiot military elite that was in charge of Japan DIDN'T CARE! They didn't care how much suffering their people had to endure. Surrender was NOT going to happen! Real men, real samurai NEVER SURRENDER! The voices of reason calling for surrender, for beginning negotiations with America were shouted down. Thus, more than anything else, the atomic bomb gave Emperor Hirohito the "face-saving" boost that he needed to tell these idiots that the time had come for Japan to surrender. It was one thing to surrender in the face of battle against an enemy with conventional bombs and weapons. It was another thing to face the seemingly supernatural force of atomic weapons. No matter that the atomic bombs actually killed fewer Japanese per city and were thus LESS EFFECTIVE than conventional firebombs. No, atomic weapons were a supernatural force that the Americans now controlled and so this was a good reason to stop fighting finally. * When you compare with simple math, the dropping of the bombs took less lives than if we had tried to invade Japan. That's true for Japanese lives as well as American lives. Japanese lives were saved as a direct result of those bombs. * The Japanese casualties (not including mass suicides as seen on Okinawa) were expected to be 5 to 10 times that of the Allies in an invasion. As many as 20 million Japanese men, women and children might have died in a bloody invasion. Saving lives in a worthy goal. Sadly some had to die that others might live. * While the atomic bombs, just as ANY bombs, were an unpleasant way to die, in the long run it saved lives and brought WW 2 to an end. Six long and costly years of world-wide death and destruction came to an end, thanks to the courageous decision made by President Truman. * How many Japanese would have died as we invaded the islands of Japan? Every city could have been leveled, every rice paddy, all utilities, sewers, etc. What bullets and bombs didn't kill the diseases that followed would finish. Certainly that figure would have exceeded those that died BY FAR all those that died from the two bombs dropped. * After having fought through Iwo Jima, Saipan, Guam, and Okinawa, there was no doubt that the Japanese people and their leaders would fight until the last man, woman, and child. If the Emperor had not instructed his subjects to stop fighting after Nagasaki they were prepared to resist tanks and artillery with sticks and stones until the last man, woman, and child perished. * An invasion of the Japanese mainland would have been a blood-bath for both sides. One could ask if cutting off the arm of a man is just. If that arm has gangrene and will kill the man slowly if not amputated, then it is indeed just. It does not matter that the arm is "innocent." Radiation is more horrible than conventional bombs * The radiation released from the bombs is still causing problems in Japan today. Many people died because of exposure to radiation. I understand that the people back then did not know the effects of an atomic explosion, they just thought that they were super bombs. And I also acknowledge the fact that invading Japan itself will cause high casualties on both sides. But, civilians are not suppose to protect the soldiers with their lives, it is the other way around! In a war, the deaths of 1 million soldiers are better than the death of 1 civilian, because civilians are innocent and soldiers are not. Surrendered soldiers are also innocent. I know that many soldiers were conscripted and do not want to fight, well too bad, blame the war. * The atomic bomb leaves behind radiation. And not just where the bomb exploded, the wind carried the particles around. The radiation is what makes the bomb so controversial. Yes, the US achieved its goals, but, after the bombings and up to 4 months afterwards, tens of thousands of people died of illness directly related to radiation poisoning. Is this justifiable by saying that more people would have died if the US invaded Japan? Maybe it is, I'm not saying it isnt, but the thing is, even if more people died, dying of radiation sickness or watching as the skin melt off of you is much worse than being shot to death, or dying while fighting to protect the land you love. * Can you really compare any type of bombing to atomic bombing which does have the factor of radiation poisioning which lead to cancers such as Leukemia. Does anybody deserve this destroyer of lives to be dropped on them? Several women had the intricate designs from their Kimonos burned into their flesh! The US wanted to kill as many civilians as possible * The bombs were nothing more than senseless civilian casualties in an already bloody war. * Supposedly the U.S. used the bomb on a military target. The reality is that Hiroshima was chosen not because there was a weapons plant nearby, but because it was a highly populated urbanized city. The site was chosen to showcase the full destructive power that the U.S. had available. Hiroshima and Nagasaki were military targets * One may think that the US chose to bomb the most populated areas only to kill many innocent civilians, but this is ridiculous to anyone who has studied history. The two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were chosen because they were industrialized and military ports. All nations in WWII killed civilians * Like it or not there was little distinction between civilians and soldiers in WWII owing to the industrial nature of the war. The military could not operate without a functioning civilian economic base. All the major players targeted industry, communication and transportation of their opponents. This is in addition to directly attacking civilians in the hope of fostering terror. Of all the nations the U.S. had the luck of geography that Germany and Japan really could not hit the mainland US. They tried. * This was World War II. Bombs were dropped. People died. It happened in most participant nations and most of them dropped bombs of their own. If they didn't, it was only because they didn't have any to drop. I cannot for the life of me understand what difference it makes what type of bomb was dropped by whom. Japan wanted to bomb the US * The Japanese had a secret atomic bomb project. Is there any doubt they would have use it if they had succeeded in perfecting the bomb? The Japanese were not innocent * Just four years earlier the Japanese invaded us at Pearl Harbor without warning, bringing the US into World War II. We at least gave Japan a warning and they still wouldn't surrender. It had to be done. * Read "Rape of Nanking", a book about Japanese atrocities in China during WWII. Talk to some of the older people of China, Korea, Singapore, etc. who experienced WWII at the hands of the Japanese military. I would challenge you to find a single Asian person of that generation with personal experience of the Japanese invasions of their country who is not PROFOUNDLY GLAD that Japan got atomic bombed. My personal references in this case are my own parents and my two in-laws. Uniformly, their response to this would be: "Yes! Japan deserved getting atomic bombed!" To this day, the people of Asia have still not forgotten or forgiven Japan for its many atrocities of WWII and earlier. * The dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan has allowed the Japanese to maintain this myth that THEY were just as much victims of WWII as all the people of Asia and the Allied soldiers who died at their hands. Has anybody ever wondered why Germany does not have similar fantasies of victimhood? We have the Holocaust to "thank" for this. The death camps in Germany were kept as monuments to Nazi atrocities and the Nuremberg trials exposed the war criminals. Only the most egregious Japanese war criminals were put on trial. The bombings had nothing to do with Japan, it was about the Cold War * The real reason America used these weapons was to show Russia that the US possessed them. There would have been a Soviet occupation * The invasion was set for November 1, 1945. By that time, the USSR would have fought long enough to have a say in the partition of the Japanese island group and perhaps even Tokyo itself. The impact of Soviet occupation upon Japan and the part it could have played in Korea and the Cold War cannot be calculated. All war is unjust * I'm not sure anyone person is capable of answering this question. If you ask a Japanese or German who lost family members during the bombing of Hiroshima or firebombing of Dresden, you might get a different answer. Then ask a London resident during the bombing and rocket attacks of WW2 and see what he or she says. * Was dropped the atomic bombs a nice, humane thing to do? No, it has been a long time if ever that warfare has been a noble art. Did it save lives in the long run? Yes. * It is very hard to walk in the shoes of the people who made the decisions in 1945 especially when some of the greatest "concerns" people have today are what Paris Hilton is wearing or who just got booted off of Survivor. * I believe the notions of Just and Unjust are incompatible with war. Moral standards are created to facilitate civilian societies. Any attempt at reasoning within the same conceptual framework during a war collapses immediately. Formally, the USA had a right to drop the bomb, by international law of the time. Her territories had been violated and there was a state of war. The USA committed no crime of any national or international kind when dropping the A bombs. In fact, the USA was not even subject to international conventions in her relation to Japan, as Japan had not signed any. Even if the USA had been subject to Geneva and Hague in her relation with Japan, as she unilaterally declared herself to feel, the only applicable rule would have been proportionality. * In war, the objective is to defeat your enemy and keep your own men alive. The point of war is to win, not to make friends. I'm sorry if you see this as a cold response, but when it comes to war, the moral thoughts that govern society are not the same morals that govern the military. Japan was already losing * Japan was losing in 1945. It was only a matter of time before Japan lost the war. The bombings ended the war * Japan was not about to fold. The military attempts to prevent the emperor from capitulating are an indication of this. * As is not always realized, the U.S. asked Japan to surrender before the dropping of the first bomb, and yet we got no response after the first bomb, thus as a result, we dropped our last atomic bomb on Nagasaki, resulting in Japan's full surrender. * Justification is so often seen by various sides of the argument from their own perspective. What seems just to one side is dismissed by another. Truman's decision to drop the bombs was undoubtedly right. Even after the second bomb was detonated, the Japanese still did not surrender for another week! The US kept up round the clock bombing by B-29s until the moment of surrender. * Even after Hirohito made the tape of his speech of surrender, to be broadcast the following day, a group of diehard military officers attempted a coup and tried to snatch the tape. General Mori of the Imperial Guards was murdered in the coup (he refused to divulge the location of the tape), the plotters were unable to find the tape, and the coup failed. Japan was in the grip of fanatics. The United States in the latter days of WW2 was faced with a terrible dilemma. The Japanese are a proud, courageous and determined people. Japanese men, women and children were willing to die for the emperor. The invasion of Japan was necessary to end the war, because the Japanese would "lose face" if they considered surrender. In August of 1944 the war in Europe was over and the face off between the United States and Japan had finally arrived. The United States had to choose between sending hundreds of thousands of US soldiers, many freshly off the battlefields of Europe, to invade Japan killing and being killed by the hundreds of thousands, or dropping a newly developed weapon called the atomic bomb on two cities in Japan which would result in tens of thousands of civilian lives with little cost to US servicemen. The only hope of ending the war quickly and honorably was to drop the bombs. Calls for surrender were ignored and repugnent to the Japanese hierarchy; Okinawa and Iwo Jima had shown clearly what an invasion of Japan would be like. The decision was made, the bombs were dropped, the war was ended and both military and civilian lives were saved by both countries. !03,000 people died at the time and a further 1000 over the next 30 years, although many are living (and dying) with the effects.
Asked in World War 2, English Language
What does kidding mean?
1. a. A young goat. b. The young of a similar animal, such as an antelope. 2. a. The flesh of a young goat. b. Leather made from the skin of a young goat; kidskin. c. An article made from this leather. 3. Informal a. A child. b. A young person. 4. Slang Pal. Used as a term of familiar address, especially for a young person: Hi, kid! What's up? it means like your kidding around...duh Have someone on, jest, fool about Kidding refers to something that has been said/done in a lighthearted manner. Kid, on the other hand has been explained already & the two words have totally different meanings...never the twain should meet.