From the Bible, Quran and Torah to modern day fiction, religious literature encompasses a vast array of genres.
Asked in Buddhism, Religious Literature
Do Buddhists use readings from their sacred texts during worship?
Asked in Hinduism, Religious Literature
What are the sacred texts of Hinduism?
THE VEDAS are the most important and sacred texts of Hindus. The Vedas are the world's most ancient scripture. The earliest written Vedas date to about 1400 B.C.E (Before the Common Era), but the songs they capture in letters are a great deal older, although no one can say by how much. The language of the Vedas is Sanskrit, a language that is so holy that the very word Sanskrit means "perfect". There are four Vedas: The Rig Veda The Sama Veda The Yajur Veda The Atharvana Veda Each Veda has four layers: Samhithas (a collection of hymns) Brahmanas (directions about sacrifice) Aranyaka (the forest songs) Upanishads (which searches for the meaning behind it all) Other sacred texts of Hindus are: Ramayana Mahabharata Bhagwad Geeta Srimad Bhagvatam Manusmriti Shiva Purana Hinduism doesn't have a single Holy or Sacred Book which has to be followed. Also, some say Hinduism is a way of life than a religion to have one set of rules. Vedas, Bhagavadgeeta, Bhgavatam, Ramayana, mahabharata, Upanishand, Purana
Asked in Judaism, Christianity, Religious Literature
What is the Christian holy book called?
The sacred text in Christianity is the Bible. Description of the Holy Bible The Holy Bible is a collection of 66 little books written by some 40 different people, over a period of 1600 years (2 Peter 1:21) (2 Samuel 23:2) telling the history of mankind, his fall into sin, God's promise of a 'rescuer' , God's dealings with humanity over the centuries, the arrival of that 'rescuer', fulfillment of the Messianic prophecies and mankind's one hope for the future. It is a collection of historical books, poetry, prophecy, and letters. Essentially it is the same as the Jewish Scriptures, with the addition of the New Testament - which relates the story of Jesus and the growth of the church in the years after Jesus' death and resurrection. The Holy Scriptures that are accepted by Christianity are the 66 books that comprise the Bible. The original scriptures that were penned in Hebrew run from Genesis to Malachi. Then the part of the scriptures that were originally penned in Greek run from Matthew to Revelation. These individual books are not in chronological order. But the Bible canon as it is, was accepted in the early years right after John wrote his books. Style of Writing and Relevance to Founding Christianity The sacred writing of the Catholic Church are contained in the Bible, but unlike other sacred writings, they (well, the New Testament) was written more as preaching, it is not an encyclopedia of Christianity. The Church is based on the Bishops under the successor of St. Peter (read St. Matthew 16:17-19). Weight of Scripture in Christian Sects Catholics hold that Scripture forms a part of the Church doctrine, but it holds in conjunction with the Catechism and other Papal Bulls and Creeds. Protestants typically reject any source of decrees or laws outside of the Bible in what is known as Sola Scriptura. Orthodox Christianity affirms the fact that the Bible is the sole rule for all matters of faith. Thus any other influential writings are seen as lesser than and subject to the scrutiny of the Holy Bible. Importance of the New Testament The Bible as a whole is of great importance to the Christian believer. The New Testament, in particular. The books of the Old Testament are also considered scriptural as these tell of the revelation of God throughout history, before the coming of Christ. They also they point to the coming of Christ through prophesy. It tells us of who God is, what God did, what He expected from His people "the Israelites", how he wants to be worshiped and tons of wisdom for each of us as individuals. It is a biography of His people, the things they did wrong and what they did right. The Old Testament is full of the law of God and how the people could not live by His holy law. The New Testament is the biography of Jesus. It tells us of his birth and his death, burial and resurrection. There is direction in Acts on how to be saved and the epistles tell us how to stay saved. Revelation tells us what to expect when we die from this earth. For today the New Testament is the place for all new believers to start learning. But once you get your feet wet you need to study more and delve into the wonderful knowledge of the Old Testament so you can be well rounded in the knowledge of God. Canons of the Bible Depending upon the version of Christianity you are referring to, there are multiple different versions of the Bible. The basic text is comprised of the Old and New Testaments that are further broken up into collections of books. There are different canons, however. The canon are the books that are in the Bible being that the Bible is really just a larger book containing many smaller books. In the list below, if a book has no parentheticals, this means that it is a part of all Christian Canons. If it does have letters inside the parentheticals, it means that this is a book used by the following traditions: P - Protestant (it is worth noting that because Protestants keep to a reduced canon, there is no "P" below) C - Catholic O - Orthodox S - Syrian Orthodox E - Ethiopian Orthodox It is worth noting that a book will carry an asterisk if the text has additions in some sects but not others. After this a dash will provide additional content information. Additionally most of the books of the Old Testament that are part of the Catholic or Orthodox Canons but are not part of the Protestant Canons are called the Apocrypha. The Christian Bible contains the following books: OLD TESTAMENT Pentateuch / Five Books of Moses / Books of the Law Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Historical Books Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles 1 Esdras (COE) Ezra - Esdras 2 Additions (COSE) Nehemiah - Esdras 2 Additions (COSE) Tobit / Tobias (COSE) Judith (COSE) Esther - Additions (COSE) 1 Maccabees (COS) 2 Maccabees (COS) 3 Maccabees (O) 4 Maccabees (O) 1 Meqabyan (E) -- Note that while "Meqabyan" is usually called "Maccabees" by Ethiopian Orthodox, the text of the Meqabyan is entirely different from Maccabees. 2 Meqabyan (E) 3 Meqabyan (E) Wisdom Books Job Psalms 1-150 Psalm 151 (OS) Psalms 152-155 (S) Prayer of Manasseh (O, in E this is part of 2 Chronicles) Proverbs Ecclesiates Song of Songs Wisdom of Solomon (COS) Sirach (COSE) Prophets Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations (in COSE this is part of Jeremiah) Baruch (COS, in E this is part of Jeremiah) 4 Baruch (S, in E this is part of Jeremiah) Letter of Jeremiah (OS, in C this is part of Baruch, in E this is part of Jeremiah) Ezekiel Daniel - Additions such as "Bel and the Dragon" (COSE) Minor Prophets Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi Josippon (E) NEW TESTAMENT Gospels Matthew Mark Luke John Apostolic History Acts of the Apostles Pauline Epistles Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon General Epistles Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Apocalypse Revelation Ethiopian Canon Ser`atä Seyon (E) Te'ezaz (E) Gessew (E) Abtelis (E) I Covenant (E) II Covenant (E) Ethiopic Clement (E) Ethiopic Didascalia (E) Additional Holy Materials Outside of this, there are a few things that people regard as holy that are specific to parts of the church as a whole. The Catechism of the Catholic church is a book that friendus all of the questions of where the church stands on certain issues--this includes anything from speeding to abortion and the death penalty. It is the very essence of the doctrine of the church. Other churches contain similar books like the Lutheran and Episcopalian church. The United Methodist has one called the Discipline. Though these may not be always regarded as holy (some consider them--especially the Catholic church), they are a place that condenses the doctrines of the church to a single book. Some church include a Book of Common Prayer. This is used in Episcopalian, Catholic, Anglican, and others. It is a book that aids in devotion and prayer in one's private meditation as well as cooperate worship. The Latter Day Saints movement (LDS or Mormons) include the Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price. These four texts are referred to as the Standard Works. The Book of Mormon is believed to be written in about the same time as the Bible but in the Americas, after Jesus was crucified. The other books were written by Mormon prophets. The Catholics consider writings by the Popes on doctrine as sacred and infallible and have a very high regard for the Catechism of the Church. The Christian Scientists consider Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures by Mary Baker Eddy as scripture. In addition to these, some Christian groups accept other books as scriptural. These include other documents such as the Didache, a first century 'handbook' on Christian living, which is held as scriptural by some eastern churches. Additionally there are many sayings of the Church Fathers, which are extrabiblical, but critical in the development of Christianity. Please see the Related Question below for more on that. Commentary on the idea of "Christian Holy Books" The question should be rephrased as "What do followers of Christ call their holy book?" The answer is commonly thought of as the Holy Bible. The common misunderstanding of Christianity is that it is a set of rules or beliefs that need to be followed like other religions. Christianity is about the person of Christ. Everything is centered about Christ. It is either one has Christ and Christ owns him or not at all. Jesus never claimed to be anyone else than God Himself. He made it so clear that the Jews of his day who understood his claim wanted to stone him to death. Jesus proved his Deity through his miracles, his teachings and his resurrection from the dead. His teachings, his miracles and his resurrection were public knowledge during his time. When the New Testament was written, most if not all of the eye witnesses were still alive and could have refuted the writings of Paul, Peter and the Gospel writers. Even the enemies of Jesus acknowledged the miracles but did not accept Jesus as their long awaited Messiah. Hence, the religious leaders of that time missed their opportunity to place their faith on Jesus who fulfilled every prophesy that were written about him in the Old Testament. For someone to fulfill more than a hundred prophecies to the letter like Jesus did is like looking for a penny in a two-feet deep of dollar coins covering the whole state of Texas! So you see, even Jesus hated religion. Christianity is about a personal relationship with Jesus, whom Christians believe is alive today! Islamic faith perspective Per Islam teachings and per Qur'an holy book, Muslims believe in the Bible (called in Arabic Injil or إنجيل) or Gospel that was revealed by God to Jesus (peace be upon him). Muslims; per Islam teachings; don't believe in the holiness of any other human written sections of the Christian New Testament. Muslims believe also in the Torah as the God revelation book to prophet Moses (peace be upon him) and believe in the Psalms as God revelations to prophet Abraham (peace be upon him). Qur'an says (meaning English translation): "And We (Allah or God and same God worshiped in Judaism and Christianity) sent, following in their (Jews) footsteps, Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming that which came before him in the Torah; and We gave him the Gospel (or the Bible), in which was guidance and light and confirming that which preceded it of the Torah as guidance and instruction for the righteous. And let the People of the Gospel judge by what Allah has revealed therein. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the defiantly disobedient." (5:46-47).
Asked in Religious Literature
Why are sacred texts important?
According to the Dalai Lama, a sacred text is like an emergency letter from our beloved parents, friends or relatives. Therefore, any sacred text is important because it is a letter from your loved one, and you are supposed to execute the emergency action as per the specified requirements. The sacred text contains very essential and profound instructions that have to be executed exactly with a spirit of seriousness and total faith without any deviation. [ I must say, In Buddhism, ultimately, such a faith and deviation is to be reinforced by the conformity with the stringent algorithmic logical centre of universal truth- That logic should not be specific to a place, a kingdom of living beings or time. So, we called it the universal truth. Moreover, before a loud wow, the Buddha has seriously demanded such a treatment to be given to his doctrines and phylosophy. He called it the fundamental right of all] The intention of a sacred text is expounded here in context to an emergency letter. 1. The contents of such a letter be respected, in the sense, suppose if it calls you for sending an amount of money on a particular date, then it means just that. No more or no less. Reason: If you deviate from the instruction of the letter, then it is no more a letter from the loved ones. And specially, the emergency issue loses its value and seriousness. If you change its contents, the near and dear who read it get misguided and they would misguide others. Then it becomes a cause of ignorance and results in sufferings. Purpose of the emergency gets defeated. 2. The Letter (or a sacred text) is to be read to understand, check and to meet the demand if it was genuine. Reason: It is important as a vital message, as a genuine demand, as a master copy and an urgent task to be executed in time. It is not for just simply reading again and again without practicing what is instructed. 3. Comparison of letters from two or more senders leads to confusion and ends up in a mess.[ Many a times the final goal may be same, but generally methods are different. Therefore, comparison of goals may cause unity, but the idea of comparing methods is a big error in itself at the first place. there is no chance that all methods are zerox copies. A genuine comparison to choose a method to be use is different, because it is a willingness for positivity which is free of anger, hatred, jealousy and war] Reason: Actually, such an action itself is a mistake and has no use, like "An emergency message from your wife cannot be similar to that of your sister. These two can never be similar to that of your daughter". 4. Meeting an emergency demand is the intended purpose in it. Looking for the beauty of words and sentences of the letters is 100% our own conventional business routed to our convictions. It may give good feelings but there is no chance of great feelings. 5. A letter is an introduction to an action. So it is required only in the initial stages. A letter can be loved, respected and kissed, but shall be executed immediately by you. You can't ask your friend to fulfil the demand of your loved one who wrote the letter to you.
Asked in Hinduism, Religious Literature
Why lord shiva is worshiped in the form of linga?
There is a long story behind this : Once upon a time lord brahma and lord vishnu started quarrelling.The topic was that who is more stronger between them.Then lord shiva appeared as a linga and said whoever reaches the top of the linga will be declared the winner. Both of them started to climb on the kinga but none of them reached the top.From that day it was declared that lord shiva is the strongest of all.And this form of shiva is mostly worshipped The absolute fact about linga worship: To understand about the worship of linga we must know about the seven basic Hindu gods. The seven basic Hindu gods: They are, 1. Dreaming force - Indra - feet 2. Illusory force - shakti - knees 3. Voluntary force - Brahma - hip/ genitals 4. Semi voluntary force - Vishnu - abdomen 5. Involuntary force - Shiva - chest 6. Status altering force - Shani - neck and shoulders 7. Compulsive force - Yama - head Vishnu, the preserver, is the default Hindu god and thus he enables us to maintain status quo. Vishnu force therefore has inbuilt control mechanisms. The advantage of Shiva: In a crisis, Shiva enables us to achieve more than Vishnu can enable us to. Thus, Shiva worship is innovated to enable us to achieve more even in the absence of a crisis. This we achieve by inhibiting our sexual urge, which is symbolized by destruction of Kama (the god of sex), whom Shiva destoys by opening his third eye. Shiva and the linga: The Shiva force is uncontrollable force. We may even inadvertedly start using Status altering Shani force and Compulsive Yama force, thus inviting disaster. Therefore, whenever we worship Shiva we need a counter force. The Brahma force, is the best antidote for this. Brahma, the creator, is symbolized by the genitals. Since we use Shiva force by destroying our sexual urge, the sex symbol is the logical counter force. Brahma and linga: Originally, Brahma represented the hip and thus the genitals. However, worshipping Brahma as an independent god resulted in starting of bad parallel lives independent of our main life, symbolized by demons. It is for this reason that we believe that Brahma is the god of demons. Therefore, Brahma was supposed to originate from the navel of Vishnu and thus represent the voluntary component of the Semi voluntary force. Thus, the genitals remained unrepresented. The linga later got associated with Shiva, thus making Shiva a complete and independent god. Therefore, we don't worship Shiva in the form of a lingam. We worship linga when Shiva makes us uncontrollable. Together, Shiva and linga enable us to have a powerful controllable force. linga has no front or back;beginning or end pointing infinite god;linga is for identity
Which dwarves die in the end of The Hobbit?
Of the THIRTEEN dwarves that set out along with Bilbo Baggins on the Quest of Erebor, three died in the Battle of the Five Armies: Fili, Kili, and Thorin Oakenshield. The other 10 dwarves were: Dwalin, Balin, Dori, Nori, Ori, Oin, Gloin, Bifur, Bofur, and Bombur. In the 1977 animated movie version of The Hobbit, only 6 of the dwarves live. I forget which though. One thing I'm certain of: Fili, Kili, and Thorin die in both the book and the animated movie. However, only Fili, Kili, and Thorin die in the book.
What are the six books of History in the Bible?
What is the altar call and its significance?
Why is the word darkness associated with ancient times?
There is two reasons 1 they called it darknees because they didn't learn or study, and there weren't books so they called it darknees because they say that there mind werent opened or lightned and they didn't have religions. 2 Becuase in those time the magicians and the witchs were alot so they called it darkness. ANSWER #2 Darkness probably refers (as stated above) to periods in ancient history when lack of education, art, and a stable economy caused severe oppression. Sometimes these periods (dark ages) were quite long and left a lasting memory in the lives of those who lived it and those who heard about it.
Asked in Old Testament, Religious Literature
Was the Code of Hammurabi older the Old Testament?
How many different types of bibles are there written in English?
Asked in Confucianism, Religious Literature
What are the Confucian Holy Books?
It's possible to view Confucianism as a religion or a philosophy. Scholars debate its nature to this day. With that said, there is no one "holy book" of Confucianism. There are nine books, but whether or not they are holy is questionable -- since holiness implies divinities. There are: The Confucian Classics (5 books) and The Four Books (4 books). Confucius (551-479 B.C.E) was a well educated man who enjoyed the archery and music. When he realized he couldn't make a living enjoying his hobbies, he tried to sell himself as a moral philosopher. After being turned down for government service, Confucius became China's first professional teacher. It was in Confucius' school that the Confucian Classics were compiled and edited by Confucius and his students. Later, during Song Dynasty (960-1260 C.E), a scholar named Zhu Xi embraced and reinterpreted the teachings of Confucianism as a political philosophy. Zhu combined elements of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism to create Neo-Confucianism, a broader more encompassing form of Confucianism. With the creation of Neo-Confucianism, Zhu Xi promoted texts that became canonical to Confucianism. These four texts were called simply The Four Books. The Confucian Classics The Book of Changes, or Yi Jing The Book of History, or Shu Jing The Book of Odes, or Shi Jing The Book of Rites, or Li Jing Annals of Spring and Autumn, or Qunqiu The Four Books Analects of Confucius1, or Lunyu Book of Mencius, or Mengzi Great Learning, or Daxue Doctrine of the Mean, or Zhongyong 1. If one book must be the "holy book" of Confucianism it would be Analects of Confucius. The 'Four Books and Five Classics' were the authoritative books of Confucianism in China, written before 300 BC. The Four Books are Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean, Analects of Confucius, and Mencius. The Five Classics are Classic of Poetry, Classic of History, Classic of Rites, Classic of Changes, and finally, Spring and Autumn Annals. The analects and the 5 classics also the 4 books Analects of Confucius. Analects of Mencius. Doctrine of Mean. Classic of Rites. Classic of Poetry. I Ching is sacred to Confucianists too. The Analects Confucius was a philosopher, not a religious figure. There are many writings that set forth his philosophy, his views on ethics and politics and society in general. As Confucianism is not properly speaking a religion, it does not have sacred texts as such. However there are books which have a high profile within Confucianism and which are important to Confucianists. They are: The Confucian Analects (Lun Yü) The writings of Mencius, (who along with Confucius (properly known as K'ung-tzu, 551-479 B.C.E.) ), 'founded' Confucianism. The Great Learning (Ta Hsüeh) The Doctrine Of The Mean (Chung Yung) The Shu Ching or 'The Book of Historical Records.' The Shih Ching or 'The Book of Odes.' The I Ching or 'The Book of Changes.' The Li Ki Part I ; The Li Ki Part II or 'The Book of Rites.' The Hsiao Ching or ' The Book of Filial Piety.' Analects of Confucius.
Asked in Hinduism, Buddhism, Religious Literature
Why do Buddhist believe that following the eightfold path leads to a better life?
Asked in Christmas, Religious Literature
Why is Christmas a joyous season?
Not, unfortunately for the same reason it was celebrated many years ago, when the center of all celebrations was done because of the birth of the Savior. Now unfortunately the season has become far to commercialized, and Christ is all but forgotten. May I leave with this poem I wrote some time ago to explain what I mean. WHY HAS CHRIST BEEN LEFT OUT OF CHRISTMAS, WHY IS HE LEFT OUTSIDE THE FRONT DOOR? WHY HAS CHRIST BEEN LEFT OUT OF THIS SEASON BY THE RICH, BY THE PROUD AND AT TIMES THE POOR? IT IS NOT AS IF HE HAS HURT ANYONE, HIS SACRIFICE PROVED THIS YOU MIGHT BRING TO MIND. WHY HAS CHRIST BEEN LEFT OUT OF CHRISTMAS, BECAUSE SANTA CLAUS IS MORE LOVING AND KIND? I SEEM TO REMEMBER EACH CHRISTMAS WE SANG OF CHRIST, IN CHURCHES ALL OVER TOWN. NOW HE SEEMS TO BE COMPLETELY FORGOTTEN, THE CHRIST CHILD WRAPPED IN A SWADDLING GOWN. WHAT HAS CHRIST DONE TO DESERVE THIS, HOW EASILY WE HAVE FORGOTTEN THAT KINGS AND SHEPHERDS DID PRAIZE HIM, HE, SENT TO EARTH AS THE ONLY BEGOTTEN. IT IS NOT ONLY HEATHENS THAT SHUN HIM FOR MANY PROFESSED CHRISTIANS DO TO. SO WHO IS TO BLAME FOR LEAVING OUT JESUS, IN HIS BLESSED NAME, I HOPE ITS NOT YOU. RH 2005
Why was the Edict of Milan significant?
The Edict of Toleration had already granted Christians and followers other non-pagan religions explicit freedom of worship. The Edict of Milan built on this by guaranteeing the return of any appropriated church property and granting Christians some additional privileges, although in practice the Edict of Milan was not used to the advantage of Gnostic Christians, whom Emperor Constantine regarded as an unnecessary and divisive influence. The Edict of Milan was significant more in what it did not say - it demonstrated to acolytes, and to those with imperial ambitions, where Emperor Constantine's loyalties lay.
Who wrote the Epic of Gilgamesh and when was it written?
We don't know who wrote it, but it is believed to have been written around... 3000bc The person credited with writing Gilgamesh is Shin-eqi-unninni somewhere between 2500-2000bc Gilgamesh, was perhaps adopted, because he came under the lineage of his Uncle Cush and, at the age of fourteen, he began to be called Nimrod. Asshur and Nimrod conquered Assyria during the fifty years following the birth of Arphaxad (2665 BC). or The earliest fragments of Sumerian Gilgamesh poems date to around 2000BCE. These were individual poems, parts of which were later incorporated into the full epic. The earliest evidence we have for the combined epic dates to around 1800BCE - the "Old Babylonian" version. This version was edited and expanded by Sin-lequi-unninni in the middle Babylonian period (probably somewhere between 1300 - 1000BCE) to produce the so called "standard version" of the epic. It is commonly held that the full flood narrative was added to the story at this time, almost certainly based on the flood story from the Epic of Atrahasis (c1700BCE). Apart from the middle Babylonian editor we have no idea who composed the original Sumerian poems or the Old Babylonian epic. It was evidently written in poetic form and designed to be sung as court entertainment.