Pollution is the process of giving out contaminants such as smoke and carbon dioxide, and too much of a certain product such as light, heat and sound that both cause harm to the environment.
Asked in Food & Cooking, Pollution, Nuclear Weapons
What could be good to eat after nuclear fallout?
According to "A Fighting Chance" you could survive off plants such as grains, beans, and legumes after nuclear fallout. Also canned foods would be alright as they are protected from radiation for the most part. As for animals that you might consider eating, they will be affected by a combination of gamma radiation inside and out, as well as the intake of irradiated food or lack of food to eat altogether. Their organs would be so saturated in radiation that you would develop radiation poisoning from consuming them.
How can air pollution be minimized?
More people using public transportation since that would make there be less cars on the road, reducing our carbon monoxide emissions. Also, more people could take a caravan (drive with others) to work for the same reason. Other ways to reduce: 1. Reduce the use of cars --- Your car is a significant source of air pollution, so switching to a more gas-efficient vehicle will be a big help. Taking public transport to work rather than driving will reduces the number of carbon dioxide into the air. 2. Reduce Waste --- Manufacturing of unnecessary or disposable goods often produces air pollution, so reduced purchasing of disposables will help. In general, follow the solid waste mantra - "Reduce, Reuse, Repair, And Recycle" - and this will reduce air pollution as well from transporting, treating, or disposing of unnecessary wastes. 3. Eliminate Toxic Chemical Use at Home --- A surprising number of household or home shop chemicals are toxic and volatile. Many release vapors into the air, inside the home and out. This can be serious health threat to your family, and contributes to community-wide levels of air pollutants. 5. No Burn Barrels --- Northeast Wisconsin communities need to pass and enforce ordinances prohibiting individuals or businesses from burning trash in their back yards. This type of uncontrolled burning is extremely polluting, especially when many people are doing it. When trash is burned incompletely and at relatively low temperatures, a great deal of soot and ash is produced. Many plastics, coatings, inks, paints, metals and treated woods will produce toxic chemical air pollutants such as dioxin, lead, arsenic, chromium, etc. 6. Plant leafy trees and shrubs --- Deciduous trees and shrubs (the kinds that drop leaves in the fall) are excellent air filters to help reduce smog and cool the air on hot summer days. kalif
What are the predicted results of global warming?
The United Nations Inter-Governmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), 2007: Summary for Policymakers suggests that: Continued greenhouse gas emissions at or above current rates would cause further warming and induce many changes in the global climate system during the 21st century, with warming expected to be greatest over land and at most high northern latitudes, Snow cover is projected to contract. Widespread increases in thaw depth are projected over most permafrost regions. Sea ice is projected to shrink in both the Arctic and Antarctic under all SRES scenarios. In some projections, arctic late-summer sea ice disappears almost entirely by the latter part of the 21st century. It is very likely that hot extremes, heat waves and heavy precipitation events will continue to become more frequent It is likely that future tropical cyclones (typhoons and hurricanes) will become more intense, Extra tropical storm tracks are projected to move poleward, with consequent changes in wind, precipitation and temperature patterns, Increases in the amount of precipitation are very likely in high latitudes, while decreases are likely in most subtropical land regions Contraction of the Greenland Ice Sheet is projected to continue to contribute to sea level rise after 2100, whilst the vulnerability of the Antarctic ice sheet could increase to warming, increasing future sea level rise. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing acidification of the ocean. A: The most direct effect of climate change on humans might be the impacts of hotter temperatures themselves. Extremely high temperatures increase the number of people who die on a given day for many reasons: people with heart problems are vulnerable because one's cardiovascular system must work harder to keep the body cool during hot weather, heat exhaustion, and some respiratory problems increase. A: Average temperatures have climbed 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8 degree Celsius) around the world since 1880, much of this in recent decades, according to NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. The rate of warming is increasing. The 20th century's last two decades were the hottest in 400 years and possibly the warmest for several millennia, according to a number of climate studies. And the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports that 11 of the past 12 years are among the dozen warmest since 1850. The Arctic is feeling the effects the most. Average temperatures in Alaska, western Canada, and eastern Russia have risen at twice the global average, according to the multinational Arctic Climate Impact Assessment report compiled between 2000 and 2004. Arctic ice is rapidly disappearing, and the region may have its first completely ice-free summer by 2040 or earlier. Polar bears and indigenous cultures are already suffering from the sea-ice loss. Glaciers and mountain snows are rapidly melting-for example, Montana's Glacier National Park now has only 27 glaciers, versus 150 in 1910. In the Northern Hemisphere, thaws also come a week earlier in spring and freezes begin a week later. Coral reefs, which are highly sensitive to small changes in water temperature, suffered the worst bleaching-or die-off in response to stress-ever recorded in 1998, with some areas seeing bleach rates of 70 percent. Experts expect these sorts of events to increase in frequency and intensity in the next 50 years as sea temperatures rise. An upsurge in the amount of extreme weather events, such as wildfires, heat waves, and strong tropical storms, is also attributed in part to climate change by some experts. A: Polar ice caps melting: The ice caps melting is a four-pronged danger. Beach erosion, low countries flooded, economic cost of repair and prevention. Economic consequences: Most of the effects of anthropogenic global warming won't be good. And these effects spell one thing for the countries of the world: economic consequences. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars in damage, diseases cost money to treat, changes in agricultural practices to continue to provide food will be expensive and control and conflicts exacerbate all of these. Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves: Although some areas of Earth will become wetter due to global warming, other areas will suffer serious droughts and heat waves. Africa will receive the worst of it, with more severe droughts also expected in Europe, with millions at risk of starvation. Warmer waters and more hurricanes: As the temperature of oceans rises, so will the probability of more frequent and stronger hurricanes. We saw in this in 2004 and 2005. Spread of disease: As northern countries warm, disease carrying insects migrate north, bringing disease to humans and agriculture. A: More heat means more energy. More energy could mean a total meltdown of the icecaps on the poles. That in turn would not be so good because sea water levels would raise. It would mean big problems for countries like Netherlands and part of Denmark. Many coastal cities could/would be flooded. New Orleans, New York, and of course other seafront cities as well all over the world. The extra amount of energy all over the world due to a warmer climate could make thunderstorms more ferocious. Today's Twisters could turn into super-twisters. The warmer climate will kill off a lot of plants, insect and animal life all over the world, both in the sea and above. Coral reefs will be destroyed. The effect of rising seawater temperature can today be seen many places where seaweed dies off at a rapid rate. When seaweed dies it leaves the small fish without protection. The whole balance of nature is to a certain degree changing. A: It is difficult to predict the future, but in 2001 the IPPC issued a Report: Climate Change 2001: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (See the link below). Here are some of the suggested impacts: Climate change will have impacts on human health: weather-related mortality, infectious diseases and air-quality respiratory diseases. Climate change will affect crop yields and irrigation demands. Climate change will affect the composition and geographic areas of forests as well as product health and productivity. Water Resources will be affected: water supply, quality and competition for water. Coastal areas and islands will be affected through beach erosion, flooding of coastal lands and economic costs to protect local communities. Species and Natural areas will be impacted through habitat loss and species loss, and also the Polar ice caps and snow cover and the disappearance of glaciers which often sustain rivers. "Climate-stressed" areas will lead to habitat loss, and species, animal and man will have to adapt or move in order to survive. The following quote illustrates how much we rely on our ecosystems for goods and services: "Forests and woodlands provide many goods and services that society values, including food, marketable timber and non-wood products (fuel, fiber, construction material), medicines, biodiversity, regulation of biogeochemical cycles, soil and water conservation (e.g., erosion prevention), carbon reservoirs, recreation, research opportunities, and spiritual and cultural values." The report goes on to say that changes in climate are likely to affect all of these, especially the socio-economic systems. Moderately warmer weather and increased CO2 in the atmosphere may help some crop growth (up 30% in the case of rice, soy and wheat), but with increased temperatures the grain yield drops 10% for every 1 degree C rise above 26C. Agricultural areas may suffer erosion from increased wind and water from short term changes in weather. The growth of agricultural pests (weeds, insects and pathogens) under climate change is being studied with varying results. For example, higher temperatures increase the severity of rice leaf blast epidemics in cool subtropical zones, but in warm humid subtropics higher temperatures lower the severity of the epidemics. Farm animals are affected by warmer temperatures, influencing their performances in growth, milk and wool production, reproduction, health and well-being. Increased temperatures may lead to increased demand for water from agriculture and wildlife, including farm livestock. It may also lead to reduced water availability. Adaption costs for agriculture, including retraining farmers for new practices, as well as the provision of new irrigation may be considerable. The impacts of climate change are likely to be more severe in poorer parts of the world, where people are less able to adapt to change. The cost of basic food will rise, especially with temperature rises of more than 2.5 degrees Celsius, as agriculture will not be able to absorb increased costs. "Africa is projected to experience marked reductions in yield, decreases in production, and increases in the risk of hunger as a result of climate change." 25% of the world's mammals and 12% of the world's birds are at significant risk of global extinction. This extinction may be caused by several factors, including habitat loss, introduction of exotic species, pollution and biochemical poisonings and severe climate events. Frogs and other amphibians may be especially susceptible to climate change as their moist and permeable skin and eggs as well as their use of several habitats to exist make them vulnerable. Cold winters will no longer kill the eggs of the boreal forest insect pests. Studies in Britain suggest that 10% of all Nature reserves could be lost in a few decades. The effect of increased concentrations of CO2 on decomposition, plant productivity, and carbon storage could be just as damaging as the effects from climate change. A: Potential Impacts: The sea levels may rise. Technically this may be caused by melting ice from the polar ice caps or an increase in sea height as the less dense fresh water is less compressed. Low lying land like many Pacific Islands and Miami will be under water. Serious climate changes may result from diverted ocean currents. As an example, the Gulf Stream keeps Europe warm. If the Stream is not running Europe may be much cooler and drier. Crops may not grow. Ecology changes on the land could include species of animals and plants extending their range to the polar regions. Local flora and fauna may become extinct. A good example is the spread of Africanized bees and Fire Ants. Sea life may also be impacted both through the introduction of competitive species presently kept in other areas by water temperature changes, and by failure to adapt to less saline water. Human society may be disrupted if changes in rainfall and temperature cause crop failure. Famine refugees may require significant humanitarian attention by the "lucky" nations. Some of the predictions being made about global warming include a constant rise in sea level as time goes. The ice in the polar regions will keep on melting due to rise in global temperature.
What are some bad things about plastic?
"One bad thing about plastic is its bad for the enviroment. You should use reuse able things that isn't plastic. Most wastes biodegrade (compost) but plastics do not." Plastic is not inherently "bad for the environment", it depends entirely on how you manage your plastics waste. If you carelessly go around throwing plastic bags and empty plastic containers onto the ground, then of course it's a problem. If you collect and recycle them then there isn't a problem. Synthetic plastics in the environment basically just sit there - they are not intrinsically toxic or harmful. The comment "most wastes biodegrade but plastics do not" is complete nonsense. Firstly, plastics DO biodegrade, they just do it very slowly. Also, if you place paper (recycled paper or any other type) into a landfill site, THAT will not biodegrade for years either. The reason is simple - biodegradation requires oxygen, and the inside of landfill sites are basically oxygen-free. No bugs can survive there, so no paper can degrade. The whole "use paper cups, they're more environmentally friendly" thing is pseudoscientfic claptrap. They key point is the way that you handle and manage the waste, not what the waste is made of.
Asked in Global Warming, Pollution
What are green house gases?
A greenhouse gas is an atmospheric gas that absorbs and retains energy from infrared radiation. Greenhouse gases must have at least three atoms, to vibrate and turn the radiation into heat. Energy from the sun heats the earth's surface and atmosphere, which drives the earth's weather and climate. The earth's surface radiates some of this solar energy back into space. Certain atmospheric gases are called greenhouse gases (GHGs) because they help trap some of the outgoing energy, retaining heat somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse. Water Vapor is the primary greenhouse gas and makes up about 75 to 80 percent of all warming. Carbon Dioxide is the second most common and makes up about 5 to 25% of the warming. Man is a contributor to this gas. Other gases include virtually all gases with three or more molecules in them. Some examples of the gases are:- Most carbon oxides like carbon dioxide Hydrocarbons like methane Water Vapor is, by far, the most common (90%) These gases are present in the atmosphere and the reflect the terrestrial radiation emitted by the Earth at night. They help in maintaining warm temperature and their absence can cause severe temperature drop resulting in unsuitable conditions for life to survive. But too much of it can cause global warming. When you get down to the actual factors. A gas that is considered a greenhouse gas is any gas that has three or more atoms in each molecule. Oxygen has two molecules and therefore does not have the mass to hold energy, while O3 (Ozone) has three and can hold more energy.
What is tripping pipe on an oil rig?
The term "tripping the well" got it's start most likely as a reference to the "round trip" made by the drill bit. The first leg of the trip is coming out of the hole, by lifting the entire drill string and unscrewing the upper most drill pipe called a joint, the newly removed drill pipe is laid beside the rig and the drill string is lifted again, etc. until all drill pipe is out of the hole. After service work is performed, for example change to fresh drill bit, then the second leg of the trip is to reverse the process, lowering the drill string as each new joint is made until fully back in the hole with the bit on bottom. You can find a lot of interesting videos on offshore rigs, jobs, etc here: I left the previous answer in place: When drill pipe is lowered or put into the well in the well, it is called running in or is tripping into the well. When drill pipe is raised or pull out of the well, it is call running out or tripping out of the well.
How has technology affected car pollution?
It has radically reduced the emmissions given off from automobiles. Too bad the big vehicles aren't as closely scrutinized yet. It is absolutly amazing. From a seminar recently, I understand that leaving the fuel cap off will release more hydrocarbons than from the exhaust out the tail pipe. With the addition of flex fuel, electric, propane, hydrogen, bio-diesel, and Hybrid cars the outlook is better. I have found that since the advent of OBDII the number of problems that can occur is astronomicle. I have a pre-OBDII and an OBDII vehicles,and by comparison (Both being Fords) the OBDII has suffered more problems (From very low MPG to extremely bad performance issues not able to be corrected by Ford engineers themselves). At any given time the dealerships claim it is in the computer program to which they can not change(Poor MAF sensor performance,Timing issues)they just don't seem very knowledgeable about what they are doing or care about the matter (You already bought it tough luck is the usual answer).But their resolve to the delema was to go online and purchase a chip for socket J2 on the computer,I asked if the vehicle does not get 21M.P.G. like the manufacturer states than to me there must be a problem. After the techs laughed they stated that there is no possible way for that vehicle with that program to attain that fuel economy.It was stated that 18 M.P.G was the best I'd ever see. Not accepting this from Ford I set out on a little adventure, and discovered their big flaw. It was the catalytic converters, and by having four of them would be a strain on any engine. So we decided to test our theory,and removed the larger segments of converters (2 of them). Created a filler pipe to cover the distance, and re-inserted the O2 sensor as to not throw a code. Discovery was the fuel economy went from 18 M.P.G. to 26 M.P.G. This was a very large jump in fuel economy. To test this out I had to do it several times on over the road tests, and the results came out to within a few tenths of a M.P.G. of each other. So, in removing the technology and applying some old fashioned know how we were able to make the vehicle perform better and be more economical than the manufacturer could. (And by the way Ford blames the E.P.A. for their bad designs). JIM
Asked in Environmental Issues, Pollution, Air Pollution
What environmental problems do pigs cause?
pigs amongst many farmed animals give off methane gas in there feces (manure) and methane is extremely good at trapping heat,it lets heat in from the sun but does not let it out. the pigs manure contains toxic compounds that seep into the water table witch is then in our tap water. how ever the manure is a good fertilizer and is full of phosphates and minerals that are good for vegetation. If you have ever visited a pig sty or a pig farm and smelt that horrible odor well that is ammonia from feces and urine as well as hazardous viral and bacterial life forms all this seeps in to the ground into the water table and finds it way in to our drinking water sources. the C,F,C methane amongst one of them is all so highly flammable. cows are one of the worse polluters as they belch out enough methane in one day,just one cow,to fill 15x50 gallon oil drums per day so now imagine the whole worlds population doing that as well as pigs and other animals.
Asked in Pollution, Water Pollution
How does pollution affect the habitat?
Popuation effects the habitat because car fuel for example if too many people use cars often it can effect the animals and plants which they eat. Some animals habitats are in cold countries like the North Pole and when we use are heating and turn it up to high all the smoke travels around the world and sometimes gets so hot it can melt the snow. That is why we should all do are bit for the enviroment. Thankz hope this answered your question. :)
Asked in Pollution
What will happen if you pollute water?
Obviously, pollution is harmful towards living things. One example of pollution is oil spill. The oil floats on water and the fish that are coming up to the surface of the water to get air will suffocate. So, if the marine life dies just because of oil spill, most of the animals in the sea will be extinct. Just imagine eating fish and chips with just the chips. The pollution in the water MAY also affect the air around it, suffocating land animals including humans.
Are Decca Radar Lobes radiation safe?
There is continuing debates about "Non-Ionising Radiation" and the safety issues; although more particularly for cell phones and urban emitters rather then DECCA RADAR and DECCA Navigation emitters (note DECCA is the Chinese work for RADAR, comes from the British company that pioneered DECCA navigation). Non-Ionising Radiation is the kind of Radiation that does not strip Ions from bio-chemical bonds unlike other more harmful radiations like Gamma, Nuclear Radiation. RF radiation waves are Non-Ionising, however specific frequencies can be more readily absorb by some parts of the body then others. This is to do with resonant frequencies for body tissues and the one quarter wavelength in the RF wave it self. The rate of absorb-ion is known as the SAR (Specific Absorption Rate). The general recommendations are not to stare directly into RF beams or expose soft tissues for very long periods of time and short ranges to the emitters. Some medical practitioners believe that some frequencies have a risk at close ranges for developing cataracts etc. It is also important to understand that RF power lowers as a function of range by a "range squared law", so the power drops off quite quickly with range. Other factors are amount of exposure you receive (long term) and the frequency and power you are being exposed to (the dose). In the RADAR case it is also important to remember that they use high gain antenna, and this means that the radiation is mostly in one direction and much less in others. In the DECCA navigation emitter case the energy level is less power and is more omni directional. The RADAR case's concentrated beams maybe scanned and the RF Power maybe pulsed (not constant). The Radar beams should be arranged to not point directly into inhabitants at close ranges, and the specific range is dependant on the mean power scan rate and range against the frequency. RADARs are arranged in this way. In the DECCA navigation case the RF is Continuous, and given the range of properagation is quite far you would expect the power levels also to be much higher, however the frequency is quite low at 70 - 130 kHz and lower frequency propagate much better then higher ones so the power level can be much less. It is also believed to be much less harmful risk as these frequencies are far away from water and bio-chemical resonates. However, if you work with RF and/or RADAR it is impotent to remember that repeated exposure can harmful and that the Microwave Oven was discovered by a scientist that melted a chocolate bar in is pocket because it was in a radio beam at very close range. I do not now if he suffered as a result of it but I assume the chocolate bar was not consumed.
Does incense cause health problems?
Occasional low level exposure to incense smoke has not been shown to cause medical problems for most people. Many find that the sweet fragrance coming out of the burning incense relaxes the body and clears the mind. For this reason, it has been customary to light incense in temples, churches and mosques from time immemorial. For some people, such as those with asthma, the smoke can be irritating and trigger an attack. Studies have shown that long term frequent exposure to incense is associated with an increased risk of upper respiratory cancers and so the American Lung Association does consider exposure to incense smoke to be a cancer risk factor.
Asked in Pollution, Mining, Air Pollution
How does mining nickel ore cause pollution?
Asked in Science, Pollution, Air Pollution
How does acid rains affect things on earth?
Acid rain is very harmful to the environment. Acid rain damages everything over a period of time because it makes the living things in the environment die. Acid rain affects the life in the water as well as the life on land. It is almost worse in water than on land because the fish that are in the water need the water to breathe. When the water gets polluted, then the fish get sick and end up dying. All rainwater contains some level of acidity. Acidity is measured by pH, which stands for potential of hydrogen. The pH scale measures the amount of acid in a substance. PH is measured on a scale from 0-14, with 7 being neutral. The lower the number is on the pH scale, the more acidic that substance is. Normal rainwater has a pH of 5.6. When the pH level of rainwater goes below 5.6, it is considered acid rain.
Are oxo-biodegradable plastics harmful?
Plastics in general are harmful to the environment because they are here for 500-1000 years, and if left to be in the sun and oxygen, will fragment into smaller pieces. These smaller pieces are then mistaken by wildlife as food, and ultimately humankind eats this wildlife to complete a full, unhealthy circle. With plastic fragmentation being the enemy, OXO-degradable plastics are not eliminating the problem, but rather adding to it by accelerating this process. Also, OXO-degradable plastics add heavy metals and salts into the plastic to make it oxidize, thus leaving behind possibly toxic contaminates. In addition, there is no scientific data showing OXO-degradable plastic to be considered biodegradable (meaning that is is edible like other carbon based material) so it should not be considered biodegradable, but rather only fragmentable or degradable. Plastics are a wonderful invention that are obviously too convenient and entrenched in our human life-style to discontinue using. What we need is new plastic materials that can work in harmony with the environment rather than be a scourge to the environment. Like truly biodegradable plastics -making plastics earth friendly (like Enso Plastics) because nature, through microbial activity, can take care of the problem for us if we let it. -Del Andrus
Asked in Pollution, Mining, Air Pollution
What is acid mine drainage caused by?
Sulfide ore still in the mine reacting with ground water and air from the tunnel/shaft/pit producing sulfuric acid. [e.g. 2 ZnS + 2 H2O + 3 O2 --> 2 Zn + 2 H2SO4] This acid mixes into the ground water and either drains from or accumulates in the mine. When it accumulates in the mine it can enter the aquifer, contaminating wells and springs supplied by the aquifer.
Asked in Pollution, Air Pollution
How does air pollution affect precipitation?
Particles in the air can serve as nuclei of condensation hence favoring precipitation. Differently sized particles rest at different altitudes, according to vertical pressure gradient. For this reason the term 'air pollution' is not accurate enough for it does not specify the kind of polluting particles. For a particle to be able to act as nucleus of condensation it has to be of considerable size: dust. Often the main pollutants being monitored (but that cannot serve as nuclei of condesation since they only are of molecular size) are NOx species, such as NO or NO2. Also ozone O3 is considered an air pollutant, since ozone is not supposed to be found in the biosphere. NOx and O3 can cause irritation of lungs and airways, worsening pre-existing breathing problems, such as ashma. Old people and persons affected by breathing difficulties are advised to stay indoors when levels of NOx and O3 rise. Finally, concentration of NOx and O3 is largely driven by upper-atmosphere chemistry, driven by photodissociation reactions (hence solar light). For this reason periodic changes of concentration of these pollutants are recorded in winter and summer, according to different solar exposure.