Optical fibre works on the principle of 'Total Internal Reflection'.
Think talking hands. Everyone gesticulates when speaking. How much they do is dependent upon the individual. This action or body language is comparable to mime.
1. Hang a Klan outfit in full view of everyone that walks by his office.
2. Saturate his desk chair with spray adhesive, it stays very sticky long term.
3. Slightly loosen his bleader valves, just slightly.
4. Get a group of buddies to help you turn his car sideways between two others.
5. Jump him and glue his hands to his face.
6. Fill one of his cigarettes with tobacco / pot mixture. Everyone will smell it!
7. A little g** p**n sticking out bottom of desk never hurt anyone.
8. If he is a racist, make sure one black woman knows it.
9. Tie him up turn off the lights and lock the door.
10. Wire his office door handle to the nearest electrical outlet.
1. Late at night, light a roll of 1000 black cats outside his bedroom window. Do this night after night.
2. Using vegetation killer write "P****rt" on his lawn, Heavily.
3. Set off his car alarms in the middle of the night for weeks at a time.
4. Turn off his water main at the meter.
5. Vaseline, windshield, get it.
6. Sand in fuel tank.
7. Potato in exhuast.
8. While it's raining at night, drop off a bunch of bags of concrete in his driveway and yard, you gotta throw them hard.
9. Print fliers explaining how this person is so bad, name address phone number etc. Everyone in the neighborhood needs one.
10. Superglue filled key holes.
11. A few holes in his exhuast.
12. Trash day, tie the full bags to his rear bumper. Maybe they won't notice.
13. Remove a small patch of shingles at peak of roof on backside only.
Works especially well with vaulted ceilings. Its expensive. The water damage I mean.
14. Draw something in his driveway with vaseline.
15. Follow them around, make them think they are being followed. Paranoid people do crazy things.
Peacefully Disgrunted, Clam and collected. I will be OK.
You need to know the data for the single mode fiber transmistter and receiver losses. This is prinicpally based on the type of laser transmitter or receiver you are using. Then you perform the optical loss link budget calculation. You don't care about noise in the equation. You just know your power output in db, calculate all your db losses in the link to include receiver losses and determine if you have the necessary loss budget maintained-which is 3db.
Every teacher of science faculty deals with it hence it has importance
I think the question should be "Should you stay with a boyfriend who goes out of State to find out if he should go back to his ex?" And I would say, unequivocably, NO! This kind of thing can really damage a relationship, of course, but more than that, it will make you always feel uncertain about how he feels about this ex and you. It will harm your pride, and pride is important in a good relationship. I suggest you tell this guy that if he goes out of State, then he is also giving up the relationship. I'm sure you like him and everything, but that he is doing this tells you everything you need to know about how he feels about you. He is showing you that there is no respect or love for you... if there were, he wouldn't need to go on this errand. Even if he comes back, having decided that he doesn't want to be with her, there is nothing to say that he won't change his mind. Also, a healthy relationship rarely flourishes after something like that. Trust issues are bound to arise. He's really not "your boyfriend". He's saving you in case the one he really wants won't work out or you are a rebound relationship. He should go and let you go on with your life, the creep. My ex-boyfriend did the same, travelled overseas and created a new baby with her while "discussing" the situation. I went to see a psychologost for one day back then who said: "You have to heal. This guy lured you into a castle and now you are locked out."
The advantages of Optical fiber are increased data speed, increased bandwidth, and high data integrity. Optical signals also travel further without degradation than electrical signals and so can span further distances without needing to be retransmitted.
The main disadvantage is the cost of optical fiber and related equipment, along with the lack of existing optical infrastructure.
Frequently Asked Questions - Electronics Engg.
1. Insights of an inverter. Explain the working? 2. Insights of a 2 input NOR gate. Explain the working? 3. Insights of a 2 input NAND gate. Explain the working? 4. Implement F= not (AB+CD) using CMOS gates? 5. Insights of a pass gate. Explain the working? 6. Why do we need both PMOS and NMOS transistors to implement a pass gate? 7. What does the above code synthesize to? 8. Cross section of a PMOS transistor? 9. Cross section of an NMOS transistor? 10. What is a D-latch? Write the VHDL Code for it? 11. Differences between D-Latch and D flip-flop? 12. Implement D flip-flop with a couple of latches? Write a VHDL Code for a D flip-flop? 13. What is latchup? Explain the methods used to prevent it? 14. What is charge sharing? 15. While using logic design, explain the various steps that r followed to obtain the desirable design in a well defined manner? 16. Why is OOPS called OOPS? (C++) 17. What is a linked list? Explain the 2 fields in a linked list? 18. Implement a 2 I/P and gate using Tran gates? 19. Insights of a 4bit adder/Sub Circuit? 20. For f = AB+CD if B is S-a-1, what r the test vectors needed to detect the fault? 21. Explain various adders and diff between them? 22. Explain the working of 4-bit Up/down Counter? 23. A circuit has 1 input X and 2 outputs A and B. If X = HIGH for 4 clock ticks, A = 1. If X = LOW for 4 clock ticks, B = 1. Draw a state diagram for this Spec? 24. Advantages and disadvantages of Mealy and Moore? 25. Id vs. Vds Characteristics of NMOS and PMOS transistors? 26. Explain the operation of a 6T-SRAM cell? 27. Differences between DRAM and SRAM? 28. Implement a function with both ratioed and domino logic and merits and demerits of each logic? 29. Given a circuit and asked to tell the output voltages of that circuit? 30. How can you construct both PMOS and NMOS on a single substrate? 31. What happens when the gate oxide is very thin? 32. What is setup time and hold time? 33. Write a pseudo code for sorting the numbers in an array? 34. What is pipelining and how can we increase throughput using pipelining? 35. Explain about stuck at fault models, scan design, BIST and IDDQ testing? 36. What is SPICE? 37. Differences between IRSIM and SPICE? 38. Differences between netlist of HSPICE and Spectre? 39. What is FPGA? 40. Draw the Cross Section of an Inverter? Clearly show all the connections between M1 and poly, M1 and diffusion layers etc? 41. Draw the Layout of an Inverter? 42. If the current thru the poly is 20nA and the contact can take a max current of 10nA how would u overcome the problem? 43. Implement F = AB+C using CMOS gates? 44. Working of a 2-stage OPAMP? 45. 6-T XOR gate? 46. Differences between blocking and Non-blocking statements in Verilog? 47. Differences between Signals and Variables in VHDL? If the same code is written using Signals and Variables what does it synthesize to? 48. Differences between functions and Procedures in VHDL? 49. What is component binding? 50. What is polymorphism? (C++) 51. What is hot electron effect? 52. Define threshold voltage? 53. Factors affecting Power Consumption on a chip? 54. Explain Clock Skew? 55. Why do we use a Clock tree? 56. Explain the various Capacitances associated with a transistor and which one of them is the most prominent? 57. Explain the Various steps in Synthesis? 58. Explain ASIC Design Flow? 59. Explain Custom Design Flow? 60. Why is Extraction performed? 61. What is LVS, DRC? 62. Who provides the DRC rules? 63. What is validation? 64. What is Cross Talk? 65. Different ways of implementing a comparator? 66. What r the phenomenon which come into play when the devices are scaled to the sub-micron lengths? 67. What is clock feed through? 68. Implement an Inverter using a single transistor? 69. What is Fowler-Nordheim Tunneling? 70. Insights of a Tri-state inverter? 71. If an/ap = 0.5, an/ap = 1, an/ap = 3, for 3 inverters draw the transfer characteristics? 72. Differences between Array and Booth Multipliers? 73. Explain the concept of a Clock Divider Circuit? Write a VHDL code for the same? 74. Which gate is normally preferred while implementing circuits using CMOS logic, NAND or NOR? Why? 75. Insights of a Tri-State Inverter? 76. Basic Stuff related to Perl? 77. Have you studied buses? What types? 78. Have you studied pipelining? List the 5 stages of a 5 stage pipeline. Assuming 1 clock per stage, what is the latency of an instruction in a 5 stage machine? What is the throughput of this machine ? 79. How many bit combinations are there in a byte? 80. For a single computer processor computer system, what is the purpose of a processor cache and describe its operation? 81. Explain the operation considering a two processor computer system with a cache for each processor. 82. What are the main issues associated with multiprocessor caches and how might you solve them? 83. Explain the difference between write through and write back cache. 84. Are you familiar with the term MESI? 85. Are you familiar with the term snooping? 86. Describe a finite state machine that will detect three consecutive coin tosses (of one coin) that results in heads. 87. In what cases do you need to double clock a signal before presenting it to a synchronous state machine? 88. You have a driver that drives a long signal & connects to an input device. At the input device there is either overshoot, undershoot or signal threshold violations, what can be done to correct this problem? 89. What are the total number of lines written by you in C/C++? What is the most complicated/valuable program written in C/C++? 90. What compiler was used? 91. What is the difference between = and in C? 16. Are you familiar with VHDL and/or Verilog? 17. What types of CMOS memories have you designed? What were their size? Speed? 18. What work have you done on full chip Clock and Power distribution? What process technology and budgets were used? 19. What types of I/O have you designed? What were their size? Speed? Configuration? Voltage requirements? 20. Process technology? What package was used and how did you model the package/system? What parasitic effects were considered? 21. What types of high speed CMOS circuits have you designed? 22. What transistor level design tools are you proficient with? What types of designs were they used on? 23. What products have you designed which have entered high volume production? 24. What was your role in the silicon evaluation/product ramp? What tools did you use? 25. If not into production, how far did you follow the design and why did not you see it into production?
Fiber optics is quicker and has higher bandwidth but for long distances requires more infrastructure (but it is on the planet so is more easily repaired).
Satellite communications is slower with lower bandwidth and noticeable delays, the long range capability is greater but parts of the infrastructure (the satellites) are very expensive to replace and repair.
A diverging lens can only produce a virtual image, because the light passing through a diverging lens never converges to a point. The virtual image produced by a diverging lens is always right-side-up and smaller than the original object. The image and the object viewed are always on the same side of the lens. Diverging lenses are used as viewfinders in cameras.
Proposals are directed toward a potential sponsor, such as your future boss, a funding agency, etc. to briefly outline
and should answer the following questions:
10 pages plus Appendices
The body should carry the main message, while the appendices contain supporting information, data backing up your claims in the body, and detailed calculations which may be of importance to some readers who require additional details. If the appendix does not contribute to the overall document, don't put it in. You as the writer have to make the decision on what should be included or not. Try putting yourself in the position of the reader: an intelligent, lay person.
What is a Project Proposal?
A project proposal is written, to make an offer and to try to convince a supervisor or a future customer to accept it. In a project proposal you state that, in exchange for time and/or money, you will give them something that they want (an analysis of a procedure, for example), make something they desire (a prototype of a new product), or do something they wish to have done (redesign an existing structure). In other words, you are asking a decision-maker to invest a resource, (time or money or both), so that the project you propose can be completed, and your readers, whether a future supervisor within your own organization, or your client for your project, will invest their resources carefully. Therefore, it is crucial that your proposal friendus questions your readers may have about what you propose to them. For example, the most important question your proposal readers will want answered is how does your proposal relate to them? In other words, what problem will it solve, what need will it address, and why is it important to them? Secondly, your proposal readers would like to know exactly what you are proposing to make or do, and how it relates to the problem you are describing. In other words, they will want to be convinced that you have a plausible solution procedure to the problem, and to know what this solution procedure involves. Your readers would also like to know exactly what they would be getting from a given project, and how much these deliverables will cost. Further, they would like to be assured of your capability to analyze and solve your project's problem, and produce the deliverables that you claim you will produce. A successful project proposal identifies and friendus all of the above needs. In order to respond to those needs, a project proposal usually should include the following components:
A Title Page, which lists a brief descriptive title of your project, the names, titles and addresses of the individual(s) to whom the proposal is being submitted, the names, titles, and phone numbers of the individual(s) submitting the proposal, and the date of submission. Title Pages may also include additional information such as the proposed starting date of the project, the proposed project duration and completion date, and the cost of the project or amount of funding required.
A Table of Contents, which lists each of the main sections of the proposal, and the beginning page numbers for each section.
An Executive Summary, which provides a brief (about one page) overview of the proposed project. This is probably the most important section of your proposal, because it provides a clearly defined problem and proposed solution procedure, and a description of the expected project deliverables. The Executive Summary is often the only section of your proposal that some readers will read; and must present all the relevant information as clearly and effectively as possible. It is often the last thing to be written.
An Introduction, which provides more complete background of the project than the Executive Summary, and which indicates your knowledge of the organization, the current situation existing in the organization, and the problem itself.
Project Goals and Objectives, which serve to establish the scope and boundaries of the project in the form of functional specifications. If possible, this section should have quantifiable measures of performance. For example, "This project seeks to cut the maintenance costs by at least 20%" or, "The equipment will run for at least 2 hours on 4 AA size batteries."
Team Organizational Structure. This section provides a summary of the group's qualifications for the project. Identify key personnel and describe directly related education and experience. Also include each member's responsibility for the duration of the project. An organizational chart to identify the specific areas of responsibility of each team member may be appropriate.
Your Solution Procedure, which identifies the approach that the team will use to meet the project objectives. You should explain here your principal tasks, their duration, their sequence and their particular purposes. Wherever possible, the methods and task to be performed should be outlined in logical sequence and explained in detail. Do not assume the reviewer will fill in the gaps in your logic. Part of the Solution Procedure will be a proposed schedule. A common way of identifying project milestones and due dates is to use a graphic representation of the task relationships, such as a Gantt Chart (a bar chart showing timeliness for each principal task) or a PERT/CPM Chart (a network representation of the project that shows the sequential relationship between project activities). The Solution Procedure should also describe the relevant instrumentation and facilities required to complete the research or product development. The Solution Procedure should include a budget that estimates the anticipated R&D costs over the life of the project. Wherever possible, provide sufficient commentary on the budget to facilitate understanding by all parties involved.
Your Expected Deliverables, which should provide the reader with a description of the products and/or services they can expect from your efforts such as documents, equipment and software. Wherever possible, emphasize the ways in which your project deliverables will enhance the client's operations.
A Summary and Closing section, which briefly recaps the key points of the proposal. Summarize the current problem, the steps you propose to take to solve the problem, and the benefits to the client.
Tips for Writing Your Project Proposal
An effective proposal will identify and meet the needs of your readers by first considering what they will expect to learn from the proposal, and by then providing that information clearly and effectively. Your final grade for your proposal will be based on how well you have been able to do this, using the guidelines provided. Therefore, while writing your proposal, remember to:
Imagine yourself in your readers' position and ask if it friendus all of your questions. Your client would like to know that you can provide a sound and concrete technical solution to the problem, along with a clear procedure for arriving at such a solution. They will also want to know that you can offer realistic and reasonable costing with demonstrated financial responsibility, and realistic and reasonable timing with intelligent and thoughtful planning.
Take into consideration that there are other possible solutions to the problem at hand, and examine the strengths and weaknesses of those alternative solutions.
Keep in mind that effective professional communication should promote goodwill between you and your client. Present an effective plan for communicating with your client, and promise quality control and reliability checks on work in progress.
Check spelling, grammar and punctuation before printing out the final draft of your proposal, and be sure that the final draft appears as a professional document, free of errors.
Make sure the proposal is paginated properly, and is also reader-friendly. In other words, is it laid out effectively, can a reader spot new sections easily, does it look professional, etc.?
Be candid and state where problems exist. Factual rather than promotional information is required.
Note that writing style varies depending on the writer and the intended reader. However following are often true:
Diversity of sentence structure is desirable to stimulate reader's interest, but should not unnecessarily add to the length or should not confuse the reader.
Your written proposal and future reports should emphasize the concise documentation of a technical, complex engineering activity.
Lack of needed information cannot be covered up by confusing statements.
Use concise sentences; nouns should not be I, we, there, it, this, etc.
Proposal Evaluation Criteria
Does the proposal show a clear understanding of the problem and company background?
Are the objectives clearly stated and measurable? Is there a clear relationship between the objectives and a solution to the problem?
Does the proposal have a detailed description of what steps need to be taken to achieve success? Is there a justification of why the various steps are needed? Are project milestones established?
Are deliverables clearly stated? Does the customer know what to expect at the conclusion of the project?
Does the team have the resources, time, equipment, supplies etc. needed for the successful completion of the project?
Overall Impression:Is the proposal presented in a professional way? Would you fund this proposal if you were the customer?
to get result from microdermabrasion treatment, you have to get 3-4 dermabrasions, spaced 7-10 days apart, before noticing any changes
Faster and more stable especially for internet.
For a fast ISP in Canada check out iVC telecom
In most medical fields scientists are constantly introducing new developments . It is probably in the field of Radiology and Imaging where most technological inventions have appeared in the latest years, but from laboratory technologies up to nuclear medicine, all large and small branches of medicine are constantly evolving in technology and systems.
Why is there a need for an AD converter in fiber optics communication?
Attenuation is the reduction in intensity of a number of different things. It is the opposite of amplification. In physics or electronics the change is usually referred to using decibels (dB), noting the number of decibels by which a particular signal is reduced as it passes through a particular medium a certain distance. This concept is used quite a bit in the telecom industry because of its importance in determining where a repeater is needed.
Answer for DSL CBT
Dissipation of the power of a transmitted signal as it travels over a wire
are lines that means they are getting farther apart and will never cross or intersect
ANS 2 - You mis-read that, - the questioner said LENSES not 'lines'
When an optical signal of a given wavelength travels in the fiber it looses power. The amount of loss of power per Km length of fiber is called its attenuation.
Where POuT is optical power after 1 Km
PIN is th epower launched in the Fiber.
fiber optical wire
You wouldn't be able to talk the same way you do now. People who have that operation are often given a small box-like device to hold against their neck when they want to talk. The sound is different but you can understand what they are trying to say.
Fiber optic cables use wavelengths of visible light to transmit data. (Some use infrared as well.) They use red and above with the higher wavelengths being of higher speed and quality. The higher the wavelengths of light used, the more expensive the equipment is.
we have two types of signals namely the message signal and the carrier signal.
so if the amplitude of the carrier is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the message signal then it is known as the amplitude modulation.if we want to transmit our message signal to long distances we need to do modulation and hence amplitude modulation is done.
by amplitude modulation we generate side bands which consists of the part of the message which signal which is demodulated at the receiver to get back the original message signal
we are using this amplitude modulation in radio communication. It will work in the traffic also with out disturbances but frequency modulation didn't work without disturbances.
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