Inventions

Find questions about how different mechanisms originated and the people who came up with the ideas and put them into reality.

Asked in Television and Video, Inventions, History of Scotland

Who was the inventor of color television?

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People wrongly suggest that Germans or Americans invented Color Television, since they gave the first color advertised broadcast, but it was indeed the work of John Logie Baird. He was a Scottish engineer and inventor of the world's first working television system in Hastings, England in 1923. He gave a public demonstration of the "Televisor" in 1925. In 1928, he showed off the color Televisor, using red green and blue light to generate a full color picture. This was the first example of color television although it never went into production. The BBC had committed to broadcasting television and had settled on the monochrome Televisor system for their launch in 1929. There was no market for color at the time and the technology of the era made color television a cumbersome system. In 1939, he showed color television using a cathode ray tube in front of which revolved a disc fitted with color filters, a method taken up by CBS and RCA in the United States. In recent times, the revolving disc has made a comeback in the shape of DLP projectors that also use rotating color filters. On 16 August 1944 he gave the world's first demonstration of a fully electronic color television display. He used color encoding systems that have formed the basis for much of the color television industry ever since. Commercial color television made it's first appearance in the US in 1953, a commercial failure withdrawn after a few months and again in 1955. The second attempt was successful and remained in use ever since. 1967 was the date that the UK finally introduced color broadcasts. In 1941 He patented and demonstrated a system of three dimensional television at a definition of 600 lines. A full 70 years later, we see 3D television becoming commonly available.
Asked in Inventions, Computer History

Why were computers invented?

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Computers were made to do the very tedious computations of everyday life and business. The first calculators performed computations in seconds that would take someone using a slide rule minutes if not hours to do. Calculations for NASA entry and exit trajectories would take days or even weeks to calculate by hand and the first mainframe computers would do the calculations in minutes. "The Father of Computers" Charles Babbage who invented the 1st mechanical Computer.. in 1834 he dreamt of designing mechanical calculating machines. "... I was sitting in the rooms of the Analytical Society, at Cambridge, my head leaning forward on the table in a kind of dreamy mood, with a table of logarithms lying open before me. Another member, coming into the room, and seeing me half asleep, called out, "Well, Babbage, what are you dreaming about?" to which I replied "I am thinking that all these tables" (pointing to the logarithms) "might be calculated by machinery. " The British government first financed the project but then later cut off support. Babbage went on to design his much more general analytical engine but later returned and produced an improved design (his "Difference Engine No. 2") between 1834 and 1869. Meanwhile Ada Lovelace is credited as the "first Computer programmer" since she was writing programs -that is, manipulating symbols according to rules-for Babbage's machine. The rest Followed. The first programmable electronic digital computer was invented by Tommy Flowers to help break German "Fish" teletype ciphers during World War 2. Ten of these were built before the end of the war, also making it the first computer built in a quantity larger than one until 1952 when Remington Rand began making the UNIVAC i.
Asked in Inventions, Football - Soccer, American Football History

Who invented the game called football?

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All forms of football including American football, Canadian football, Australian rules football, Gaelic football, Association football (soccer), Rugby Union and Rugby League football can be traced back hundreds of years to a ball game known as "Shrovetide football". The word "football" is from the English language and from early medieval times the term "fote-ball" (first recorded c.1400) was used to describe a 'ball game played on foot' not necessarily with the foot. Early football games were not only played by the English but also by other European peoples groups under different names with localised innovations. Other forms include Irish "Caid" meaning 'Ball' the ancestor of Gaelic football, Cornish Hurling "Hyrl�®an", Welsh Hurling "Cnapan", "Knattleikr" a Viking ball game. A game called "La Soule" meaning 'The Ball' was played in France, "Ba" pronounced baw meaning 'Ball' played in Scotland and "Ball play" or "Playing at ball" or significantly "fote-ball" games played in England. These medieval ball games are the ones from which all modern football codes evolved and the Shrovetide ball game referred to as "fote-ball" is the version from which all modern football games take their name. These games may have evolved from a game played by the Romans called "Harpastum" which itself was an adaptation of an Ancient Greek game called "Episkyros" or "Phaininda" which, dating back to at least the 4th century BC, is the Worlds oldest known ball game that matches the medieval definition of football. It is worth noting that Harpastum was later recreated in 16th centaury Italy as "Calcio". Although there is a strong possibility the Roman and Greek ball games evolved into Shrovetide football and other similar ball games played in Europe as yet there are no verifiable connections. The Ancient Chinese also played a game called "Cuju" that dates back to the late 3rd centaury BC which has similarities to Association football. However, despite attempts by FIFA to infer an historical link between Cuju and Association Football there are no connections between Cuju and early ball games played in medieval Europe. Throughout history, people have played sports which involved using a ball and hands, feet, or sticks. Each area had its own rules. so there was no global definition of any sport. In the 1300s, the king of England, Edward III, banned football, hockey, and handball. This shows a difference between sports using the feet, hands and sticks. So comes the argument that football was traditionally played using the feet and not the hands. However FIFA acknowledges Association Football (soccer)'s earliest drafts demonstrate 'handling' (possibly similar to Gaelic/Australian Rules) was acceptable, and hands appear to be involved in the earliest lithographic sketches of 'mob football' games such as Shrove-tide. None of the modern codes of 'football' seem to have diverged formally from the various 'mob-footballs' until the 1800s. In 1863,at Cambridge University, a group of Englishmen formed the Football Association and invented the modern game of soccer. Many other "codes" of football were invented around this time. Rugby and Australian rules (earliest known draft, Melbourne 1858) were among the first to establish clear drafted rules. In North America, rugby and soccer were both played, and a hybrid, American football, was invented. All sports using the term football have words placed in front such as Association (der.- Soccer), Rugby, American or Aussie Rules (Australian) or Gaelic (Irish) to differentiate them from each other. Typically they are individually and simply referred to as 'football' within the context in which they are the dominant code. Answer Willie Tidwell invented American football. He was a really good player in the day. Willie and Walter Camp both made up the rules for Gridiron. They got it from rugby and football. They took the hitting and other activities from rugby. Soccer uses the foot, and Tidwell and Camp both thought it would be good to have goal post for kicking field goals worth three points. Answer There are many possible places and times when American football might have been created. However, the most commonly accepted answer is in 1869, when Rutgers and Princeton had the "first" game. Of course, there had been others played before then, but this game was the first time that the game had a name. As for who created it, American football is derived almost directly from rugby, though there are many people who could be credited with the creation of many of the rules that are used today. The word 'football' is from the English language and was originally spelt as 'foot ball'. When the term 'foot ball' was first used in medieval England it described 'a ball game played on foot' known as mob football or Shrovetide football in which more running with the ball was required than kicking the ball. These ball games had earlier descriptions such as 'playing at ball' and there were similar if not identical ball games being played in other countries at the same time. These games include 'Hurling' played in Wales & Cornwall and 'La Soule' or 'Choule' played in the north of France. However, mob football or Shrovetide football was the first ball game to be specifically referred to as 'foot ball'. I have created the link 'Shrovetide football' from the BBC which provides an insight into how the game is played showing photos of the Up'ards and Down'ards 'mob' playing the game. These Shrovetide games evolved into other forms of football notably Rugby football which was said to have been started by a pupil at Rugby school called William Webb Ellis in 1823. The Rugby Union Football world cup is called the "Webb Ellis Trophy" after him. The rules of early Rugby contributed too many other codes of football in England and other English speaking countries during the 19th century. American football is one of these games. It could be argued that American football is a purer form of football than say Association football (soccer) or Australian Rules football because like Rugby is retains more of the original medieval characteristics. Another Alternate Answer Soccer was invented by the Chinese over a thousand years ago, it was re-invented and codified by Britain, who is known as "the home of football." Goal posts with nets were introduced in the very late 1800s. Football started as a form of Rugby. Walter Camp is credited with being " The father of American Football" by implementing various rule changes. American football is created from Rugby (English sport) and soccer is actually the real football(or as it is known around the world) Football was created by the English. Simple Alternate Answer The Chinese invented playing with a soccer ball and goals but in a very different style. The ball was made from blubber from the inner intestate of frogs and other animals. They would have a certain number of small goals or holes used as goals to score in. Later as dynasties changed they would use the soccer ball to play volleyball style soccer, and technique and juggling became a fashion as opposed to playing and scoring. Britain later adapted but more over invented the official game of football. They changed the style and rules up with 1 goal and 2 post thus inventing the game of football, futbol, or known in US as soccer. The first Major league was started by the Scottish called the Scottish Premier League Historically correct Answer The word "football" is an English term which in early medieval times was spelt "fote-ball" (first recorded c.1400) to describe a 'ball game played on foot'. Early football games were not only played by the English but also by other European peoples under different names with localized innovations. Other forms include Irish "Caid" meaning 'Ball' the ancestor of Gaelic football, Cornish Hurling "Hyrl�®an", Welsh Hurling "Cnapan". A game called "La Soule" meaning 'The Ball' was played in France, "Ba" pronounced baw meaning 'Ball' played in Scotland and "Ball play" or "Playing at ball" or significantly "fote-ball" games played in England. These medieval ball games are the ones from which all modern football codes evolved and the Shrovetide ball game referred to as "fote-ball" is the version from which all modern football games take their name. These games may have evolved from a game played by the Romans called "Harpastum" which itself was an adaptation of an Ancient Greek game called "Episkyros" or "Phaininda" which, dating back to at least the 4th century BC, is the Worlds oldest known ball game that matches the medieval definition of football. It is worth noting that Harpastum was later recreated in 16th centaury Italy as "Calcio". Although there is a strong possibility the Roman and Greek ball games evolved into Shrovetide football and other similar ball games played in Europe as yet there are no verifiable connections. Dispite the lack of evidence it should be noted it is recorded that in Florence 59BC a game of Harpastum was played between Eipiphany and Lent the last day "Shrove Tuesday" the exact day on which Shrovetide football is still played in Derbyshire England. It should also be noted that Harpastum was taken to the Roman province of Britannia (modern day Britain) where it is recorded in 217AD that a game took place between the Romans and the native Britons. The Ancient Chinese also played a game called "Cuju" that dates back to the late 3rd centaury BC which has similarities to Association football. However, despite attempts by FIFA to infer an historical link between Cuju and Association Football there are no connections between Cuju and early ball games played in medieval Europe. When discussing football it is a common mistake that football is the same subject as Soccer. This is incorrect. There are many forms of football of which "Soccer" or "Association Football" is just one code. Other popular codes include American football (Gridiron), Canadian football, Australian rules football, Gaelic football, Rugby Union football and Rugby league football. Some of these codes took ideas from previous codes. American football is a mix of Soccer, Rugby and ideas created in the USA in particular the forward pass. Canadian football is based on Rugby whilst Australian rules football and Gaelic football both draw ideas from Rugby, Soccer and in particular the medieval Shrovetide game Caid played in Ireland. Association football or Soccer was a product of English Public schools who had played football by various rules for centuries. Then in 1848 Cambridge University attempted to create a standard set of rules for Public schools. Two former students of Shrewsbury School Mr. H. de Winton and Mr. J.C. Thring organized a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge with 12 representatives from other schools namely Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury. In the eight hour meeting these men created what became the 'blue print' for Soccer. These rules became known as the "Cambridge Rules" which unlike "Rugby School Rules" (1823) favours a game in which the ball would be kicked more than carried. In 1863 a solicitor from Hull called Ebenezer Cobb Morley wrote an article for Bell's Life newspaper promoting the idea of a new regulatory body for football. This led to the formation of the "Football Association" whose main aim was to standardise the rules of football nationally. This new code was to be based on the Cambridge Rules. The 'Laws of the game' for Soccer or Association football were drafted by E. C. Morley along with other founder members of the Football Association. They agreed the rules at a public house called the Freemasons Tavern in London on 26th October 1863. Morley became the Football Associations first secretary. He also founded the Barnes Football Club in 1862 which he captained against Richmond football club in the first ever soccer match. The game ended 0-0 but in a return game he scored the first ever goal. He died in 1924 and is buried at a Cemetery on Barnes Common not far from where he drafted the Laws of the game at 26 The Terrace, Barnes, London. A blue plaque commemorating his life's work was placed on the wall of this address by English Heritage in 2009. Entomology of the word soccer: The word soccer is a phonetic abbreviation of the word 'Association' coined by English public school students who took the 'soc' from 'Association' and put an 'er' on the end. That is why prior to 1863 the word soccer did not exist. It is probably worth noting the same students called Rugby football 'Rugger' but this word fell out of use. Research Observations When I first heard FIFA's claim soccer originated in China I was intrigued by the idea. Like many others I believed what FIFA said must be true. As a football fan I was keen to read the evidence they hand uncovered. I already knew that Association Football, American Football, Rugby Union Football, Rugby League Football, Australian Rules football and Gaelic football all evolved from medieval ball games played Europe, but prior to this I had no idea where football came from. I decided to read up on this new FIFA discovery. One problem I encountered straight away was that when looking for this proof FIFA claimed to have uncovered I could not find any! I then discovered FIFA had only put together a hypothesis that the British community who lived in China during the 19th centaury had taken Cuju back to England where it was used as a basis for Association Football. FIFA found no evidence to back up this colonialist idea and the more they looked the more they discovered their idea had no basis in fact, yet they still clamed "scientific evidence". I decided to take a look at this so called 'scientific evidence'. What I found was a cleverly worded opinion by a self appointed FIFA authority who implied there was a scientific connection between Cuju and Soccer and who wrote in a way that any casual reader would be seduced into thinking they were reading proof when in fact they were reading theory. Around the same time it became clear FIFA were aggressively pushing the sale of their football product in China. That is when the alarm bells started to ring and I realised there might be an ulterior motive to why FIFA were going to so much trouble. It should be noted that the Football Association in England who are promoting their Premiership product in China were happy to capitulate with FIFA accepting as a gift a Chinese picture of a Cuju player whilst smiling for the cameras. Meanwhile back in the real world, despite anything FIFA have said the rules of Association Football remain a reworked version of Cambridge Rules Football which themselves were a hybrid of many games which had been played in English and some Irish public schools for hundreds of years. That is a verifiable and unchanged. Later on I read an article where the FIFA President clamed Cuju spread from China to the Roman Empire. Clearly being unable to connect Cuju directly to Soccer through British colonialist FIFA had changed their story. I looked for the evidence to support this new claim. The Roman ball in question is called Harpastum. What I discovered is that Harpastum was the Romanised version of an Ancient Greek football game called Phaininda or Episkyros played as early as 2000 BC some 1300 - 1700 years before Cuju is appeared in China. Incredibly it would seem FIFA were trying to change known European history by substituting the Greek game of Episkyros with the Chinese game of Cuju. I conclude FIFA's claim that football originated in China literally does not add up in time frame or otherwise. I believe this theory has now been abandoned by FIFA, although the importance of the Greek and Roman contribution to all forms of modern football is still played down by them. I have looked at Cuju and there in no doubt the game agrees with the definition of a foot ball game. However, short of FIFA providing evidence there is a connection with Cuju and the foot ball games played in medieval Europe, the only possible conclusion is that Cuju developed in south east Asia free of outside influence and as such has to be viewed as a sport in it's own right which from first principles developed independently. After this I decided to start researching the origins of medieval ball games played in Europe which are known to have collectively contributed to the evolution of football. I wanted to find out if medieval foot ball games could be connected to the Roman game Harpastum. The games I researched were the ball game played in Northern French known as La Soule "The Ball", Mob football played in England, Cornish Hurling, Welsh Hurling, Gaelic football, Irish Hurling and Shrovetide football which was played in many European countries in medieval times. All these games have similar rules (if any rules) two teams, two goals (such as they were) and were played within a defined area. All these games have similarities to Harpastum but the one that stands our above the rest is Cornish Hurling. It is now my belief that the Roman games Harpastum and Cornish Hurling (Hyrl�®an in Cornish Celtic) are one and the same game. The game of Hurling is of Celtic origin and the Cornish are descendants of the Romano-Britons who are known to have played Harpastum. The rules of Harpastum are ambiguous but what we do know from the concepts used include a small hard ball, two goals (such as they were), two teams. Cornish Hurling also uses small hard ball, two goals, two teams and virtually no rules which might account for the reason detailed rules of Harpastum have not survived. Harpastum and Cornish Hurling were/are also played on public holidays notably days of Christian importance such as Shrovetide. And it was of course the Romans who converted the Romano-Britons to Christianity which also ties in. I accept that this theory does not provide absolute proof of a connection between Harpastum and Cornish Hurling. Due to very few first millennium AD documents surviving it is unlikely definitive proof exist. However, when you take an overall view on this I have identified decedents of Romano-Britons who live in the right place, who Cary on traditions from generation to generation, playing a similar ball game to the Romans, using a similar small hard ball as the Romans, with the same disregard for safety as the Romans and who are celebrating Christian festivals in a way the Romans did. I would liken this to what Douglas Adams once said "If it looks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, we have at least to consider the possibility that we have a small aquatic bird of the family anatidae on our hands". At the very least there is a tangible theory here which connects Harpastum with modern day forms of football which is more than can be for Cuju. I will leave it there for you to decide for yourself. We know Cornish Hurling was one of the similar medieval ball games which contributed to the creation of early Rugby games. Some of the codes and concepts introduced by Rugby and other public schools in England would later be used to create Cambridge Rules football, American Football, Association Football (soccer) and Australian Rules football. Gaelic Football is much older that the aforementioned games and is one of the family of medieval ball game which evolved independently of Rugby although is should be noted is connected from medieval times and contributed to the rules of Australian Rules Football which also draw upon the rules of Association Football. So when UEFA placed an image of a Greek Episkyros player taken on the European Cup there were right to do so because all the evidence points to football originating in Ancient Greece 4000 years ago. Gridiron football, not futbol or soccer, first documented football game was played at the University of Toronto on the present site of University College 400 yards west of Queen's Park on November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later it's Chancellor. It has been modernized ever since. The man that is credited with inventing football is Walter Camp.
Asked in Inventions, Computer History

Who invented the computer?

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This is not a question with a simple answer. It partly depends on what you mean by "computer". Many inventors contributed to the history of computers and that a computer is a complex piece of machinery made up of many parts, each of which can be considered a separate invention. Many say the first computer is the "difference engine." The first of these devices was conceived in 1786 by J.H. Müller. It was never built. Difference engines were forgotten and then rediscovered in 1822 by Englishman Charles Babbage, who is known as "the father of the Computer". This machine used the decimal numbers system and was powered by cranking a handle. The British government first financed the project but then later cut off support. Babbage went on to design his much more general analytical engine but later returned and produced an improved design (his "Difference Engine No. 2") between 1834 and 1869. But he was never able to build any of these designs. Others point out that this is the first DIGITAL computer. The earliest computer known is the Antikythera Machine, a mechanical analog device that computed the positions of the astrological signs on any given date, past or future. It was discovered in an ancient shipwreck in the Mediterranean Sea and dates to approximately 250 BC. The designer/builder is not known, but because of its similarity to other mechanical devices known to have been designed by Archimedes, it is probably his work. Still others will say the abacus is the first computer. They were invented by the Chinese between 2600 BC and 300 BC is considered as the first computer ever. Abacus was used by the merchants and Clerks in China. However the abacus is NOT automatic, but it is digital; so it is more of a "calculation aid" or "calculator" than a computer. Here is still more input: If you mean Electronic Computer, it was a man called Alan Turing from Cambridge UK, who was drafted in to Bletchley park secret base where they worked at cracking the WWII enigma codes that the Germans used every day. The Germans changed their Enigma machines to a four digit code maker. However, Because what went on at Bletchley Park the computer made from thousands of valves was kept top secret up until recently. The computer, named Colossus was smashed to pieces at the end of the war. The buildings have now been restored as a tourist center. The Colossus Mark I 1943, the world's first programmable, digital, electronic, computing devices... its follow up the Mark II was used by British codebreakers to read encrypted German "tunny" teletype cypher during World War II (notably D Day) The first computer, or "modern computer" was invented in World War II by a German engineer, Konrad Zuse in 1941 called the Z3. The Z3 was a fully digital, binary, floating point arithmetic, electromechanical relay machine programmed with punch recycled 35mm film. About the only things it lacked were conditional branches, loops, and subroutines. It was destroyed in an allied bombing raid after completion but before it saw real use. It was Konrad Zuse. He invented the z1, z2, z3, z4 and other ones. The z3 was the first fully functional program-controlled electromechanical digital computer in the world-completed in 1941. Charles Babbage just made a mechanical computing machine. The first electronic digital computer was invented by Bulgarian John Vincent Atanasoff. He named it the Atanasoff Berry Computer, or the ABC. It was the world's first electronic digital computer and built between 1937-42 by John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University. It used regenerative memory (i.e. dynamic), parallel processing, binary arithmetic and split computing functions (routines) away from memory use and management. However it was not programmable (it could only solve simultaneous equations problems). Now, if we're talking technical knowledge and actual precursors to the PC - IBM may have accidentally spread it around when they allowed cloning of the PC architecture. But they were not the first. [This answer refers to desktop "personal" computers. These were far from the first computers. These are all pre-IBM machines: MITS ALTAIR 8800, Apple II, TRS80, Atari 800 and the Commodore 64. [This answer refers to desktop "personal" computers. These were far from the first computers. Purists who claim that the ALTAIR was not the first, will say it was 'Simon' by Berkley Enterprises, 1950, costing $300. [This answer refers to desktop "personal" computers. These were far from the first computers.] The first completely electronic computer was developed in England in 1943. It was known as Colossus. It took up 1,000 Sq. ft. weighed 30 tons/60,000 pounds. And took 150 kilowatts which is enough power to light up a small town. The first working computer (in the modern sense) was invented by Konrad Zuse. But others had created machines or ideas close to it before. These were people like Pascal, Leibniz and Turing. The first patent for a working computer (outside the military) was the UNIVAC, created by Drs. John Mauchly and Presper Eckert in 1948. They formed the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, which was bought in 1950 (just as they were on the verge of bankruptcy) by Remington Rand. Their computer was used in the 1950 census (starting in mid-1951 when the first one was finished) and by Walter Cronkite in the 1952 Presidential election. The ENIAC patent was declared invalid on October 19, 1973, by US Federal Judge Earl R. Larson. He attributed Atanasoff and Berry with the invention of the electronic digital computer. For more information see the related Link. If you define a computer as the first device for doing mathematical calculations, the answer would be the "Babbage Difference Engine", invented by Charles Babbage but never completely built. However, computers trace their lineage to 19th-century power looms which became "programmable" by use of something akin to a punch-card which was used to determine which color thread would be used at any given time in the loom's weaving process. On an even more basic level, you could consider the first use of cams to determine timing of any mechanism (such as steam engine poppet valves) to be the first "computer". Charles Babbage, an English mathematician, originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered a "father of the computer", Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex designs. His proposed models were the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine. The Difference Engine came first around 1822 and was more limited and not programmable. it was intended to generate mathematical tables. This machine contained 25,000 parts and weighed 15 tons. Babbage followed this with a "difference engine 2" which, although well funded, was never completed. Babbage also designed a printer to go along with the computer, but this also was never completed. In 1989-1991, the London science museum made a difference engine 2 and printer from Babbage's design. Both worked perfectly. The programmer for the Analytical Engine, built around 1825, was Ada Lovelace (first programmer). None of these machines was ever built during Babbage's time, for many reasons including: Babbage could never finalize a design he always had to go on to improved designs, arguments with his machinist, funding, etc. American physicist John Atanasoff built the first rudimentary electronic computer in the late 1930s and early 1940s, although for several decades afterward credit for the first electronic computer went to the scientists who assembled the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) for the United States military by 1945. Danish physicist Allan Mackintosh recounts in a Scientific American article how Atanasoff first conceived of the design principles that are still used in present-day computers. Dr. Atanasoff's Computer The men who for decades were credited with inventing the first electronic digital computers were not, in fact, first. That honor belongs to a once forgotten physicist named John V. Atanasoff.
Asked in Inventions, Skiing, Olympics Alpine Skiing

Where was skiing invented?

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3 friendus after a merger: 1. Pre-historic Nordic people invented skiing to assist hunting, military technique, and as a practical transportation for themselves and the Samis. The oldest and most accurately documented evidence of skiing origins is found in modern day Norway and Sweden. The earliest primitive carvings circa 5000 B.C. depict a skier with one pole, located in Rødøy, an island in the Nordland region of Norway. The first primitive ski was found in a peat bog in Hoting, Sweden which dates back to 2500 or 4500 B.C. Joel Berglund reported in 2004 the discovery of a primitive ski, or "85cm long piece of wood", carbon tested by researchers in 1997 while excavating a Norse settlement near Nanortalik, Greenland. The primitive ski dated back to 1010, and is thought to be Greenland's oldest ski brought by Norsemen circa 980 A.D. 2. It is centuries old, exact origins unknown. Widely attributed to ancient Norsemen who began gliding on long flat boards to cross vast snow covered distances more quickly. They called this mode of travel "shee" or "skee." Norseman who had to deal with downhill sections carried a stick -- the first ski pole -- which they dragged between their legs as a primitive brake. Lift served downhill skiing evolved in Europe prior to World War I, and became popular in the USA in the 1930s. Cross country and downhill skiing did not become thought of as separate sports in this country until Hannes Schneider brought the Arlberg method to North Conway NH in the late 1930s. For more information on the evolution of skiing in the USA, I suggest you visit The New England Ski Museum website: http://www.skimuseum.org/view3.html 3. Before it was a sport, skiing was an important means of transportation. The exact origin of skiing is unclear, but there is evidence that Scandinavians were using skis to travel and hunt over snow-covered terrain as far back as 4,000 years ago. Organized slalom races were first introduced in Europe during the 1920s and the first world championship was organized in 1931. Shortly thereafter, Americans caught on and interest in this country snowballed throughout the 1930s. Alpine skiing made its Olympic debut at the 1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Games with a men's and women's combined event, featuring a downhill and two slalom runs. Giant slalom first appeared at the 1952 Oslo Games and the super giant slalom, or super G, was added at the 1988 Calgary Games.
Asked in Inventions, Computer History, Microprocessors

When was the computer invented?

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The answer to this question depends on your definition of a "computer". The earliest "computers" were mechanical devices used to help people count. The first known counting devices or tools were Tally Sticks from about 35,000 BCE. The abacus was invented, possibly by the Babylonians or the Chinese in about 2400 BCE. The abacus consists of movable counters that can be manipulated to add and subtract. The abacus is still used today for basic arithmetic. As mathematics became more complex, it got harder and harder to invent mechanical devices to solve math problems. One of these devices was conceived in 1786 by J. H. Mueller, who called it a "Difference Engine." It was never built. Difference engines were forgotten and then rediscovered in 1822 by Mathematics Professor Charles Babbage. This machine used the decimal number system and was powered by cranking a handle. The British government first financed the project but later cut off support. Babbage went on to design a much more general analytical engine in 1845, but later returned and produced an improved design (his "Difference Engine No. 2") between 1847 and 1849. Babbage's design was completed in 1871 by his son, Helmet P.Babbage. The Analytical Engine was designed to be powered by a steam engine and was to use punched cards to direct its operation. Punched cards were in use to program mechanical looms at the time. During WWII Konrad Zuse invented the Z1. According to Mary Bellis, the Z1 was the first real functioning, binary computer (actually, it was a very large calculator--but a computer nonetheless!). Zuse used it to explore several ground-breaking technologies in calculator development: floating-point arithmetic, high-capacity memory and modules or relays operating on the yes/no principle. Zuse's ideas, not fully implemented in the Z1, succeeded more with each Z prototype. In 1939, Zuse completed the Z2, the first fully functioning electro-mechanical computer. It was followed by the Z3. These machines were used to produce secret codes for the German military. For a while this gave the Germans a decided advantage. But then, the British, guided by mathematician Alan Turing, created the Colossus Mark I. Colossus was the world's first programmable, digital electronic computer, developed in 1942-43 at "Station X", Bletchley Park, England. British code breakers used Colossus to read the encrypted German messages. The Germans didn't know their "Enigma" code had been broken. This is one reason the D-Day Invasion succeeded. In 1939, John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry developed the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) at Iowa State University, which was regarded as the first electronic digital computer. The ABC was built by hand and the design used over 300 vacuum tubes and had capacitors fixed in a mechanically rotating drum for memory. In 1945, ENIAC, created by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, was unveiled. ENIAC (Electronic Numerator Integrator Analyzer and Computer) weighed in at 27 tons and filled a large room. Not surprisingly, ENIAC also made big noises, cracking and buzzing while performing an equation of 5,000 additions. Before the invention of ENIAC, it took a room full of people to calculate a similar equation. The first electronic computer that could store its own programs was developed in 1948 at Manchester University. It was called "The baby" and celebrated its 60th birthday in 2008. See BBC and Manchester University links in related links below. This is widely considered to be the forerunner of the modern computer. The UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) was the first commercially available, "mass produced" electronic computer. It was manufactured by Remington Rand in the USA and was delivered to the US Census Bureau in June 1951. UNIVAC I used 5,200 vacuum tubes and consumed 125 kW of power. 46 machines were sold at more than $1 million each. By this time, computer design was limited primarily by the size and heat of vacuum tubes. The vacuum tube was eventually replaced by the transistor. Shortly afterward, in 1959, the monolithic integrated circuit (now called the microchip) was invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments in Dallas, Texas, and a few months later by Robert Noyce, of Fairchild Semiconductor in California. The two companies were embroiled in legal actions for years, but finally decided to cross-license their products. Kilby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000. The microchip led to the development of the microcomputer -- small, low-cost computers that individuals and small businesses could afford. The first home computers became commercially viable in the mid to late 1970s, but more so in the early 1980s. By the 1990s, the microcomputer or Personal Computer (PC) became a common household appliance, and became even more widespread with the advent of the Internet. It is hard to state the exact date the computer was invented as it a continuous process. Computers were first introduced in 1822.
Asked in Inventions, Telephones

Who invented the telephone when where and how?

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Alexander Graham Bell received the first patent for a telephone in 1876. He came up with the idea at his summer home in Brantford, Ontario, Canada, but built the first device in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. There are several other competing claims for who should be given credit for inventing the telephone, including Antonio Meucci and Elisha Gray. The basic principle of the telephone is that the vibrations of sound waves hitting a conductor can cause the electricity passing through the conductor to fluctuate, and those electrical fluctuations can then cause a magnet to recreate the sound waves. If you speak at the first conductor (the microphone), and then pass the electrical fluctuations to a magnet (the speaker) at the other end of a wire, you have a telephone.
Asked in Inventions, Computer History, Laptops

Who invented the laptop computer?

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There were many engineering refinements to the laptop concept. Here are some of the significant developments: The "clam shell" design which represents our modern laptop was created in 1979 by William Moggridge (a Briton) for GRiD Systems Corporation. GRiD's Compass Computer entered the market in 1981. GRiD was acquired by Tandy Corporation in 1988. One of the first commercially available laptop computers was invented by Adam Osborne in 1981. It was called the "Osborne I" and cost $1795. It came bundled with $1500 worth of programs. It had a tiny computer screen built into it. The Osborne I and Kaypro II were not really laptops, but "luggables" - at 23.5 lb and 29 lb, respectively. One of the first modern style of "laptops" may well have been the Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 100, with weight of approximately 3.1 lb. Compaq Computer introduced their first computer which was considered portable around 1981 or 1982. It was about the same size as a modern mini-tower laid on its side, included a green monochrome monitor that was about 7 inches diagonally, and had a full-sized keyboard with a coiled cord that snapped over the monitor. "The Dynabook concept was created by Alan Kay in 1968, two years before the founding of Xerox PARC. Kay wanted to make "A Personal Computer For Children Of All Ages." The ideas let to the development of the Xerox Alto prototype, which was originally called "the interim Dynabook". It embodied all the elements of a graphical user interface, or GUI, as early as 1972. The software component of this research was Smalltalk, which went on to have a life of its own independent of the Dynabook concept. The Dynabook concept now known as a laptop computer or, (in some of its other incarnations) a tablet PC or slate computer with nearly eternal battery life and software aimed at giving children access to digital media. Adults could also use a Dynabook, but the target audience was children." The laptop computer was invented by Adam Osborne in 1981. It was called the "Osborne 1" and cost $1795. It came bundled with $1500 worth of programs. It had a tiny computer screen built into it. What is a laptop computer? A laptop is a computer that can be folded up and carried around. When was the laptop invented? The laptop was invented in 1981. Where was it invented? It was invented by Osborne Computers, a book company that sold books to McGraw-Hill. How was it invented? It was invented by taking computer technology from that time and scaling it down to make a smaller, more portable computer. A: Adam Osborne invented the laptop There were many engineering refinements to the laptop concept, however .... "The Dynabook concept was created by Alan Kay in 1968, two years before the founding of Xerox PARC. Kay wanted to make "A Personal Computer For Children Of All Ages." The ideas let to the development of the Xerox Alto prototype, which was originally called "the interim Dynabook". It embodied all the elements of a graphical user interface, or GUI, as early as 1972. The software component of this research was Smalltalk, which went on to have a life of its own independent of the Dynabook concept. The Dynabook concept now known as a laptop computer or, (in some of its other incarnations) a tablet PC or slate computer with nearly eternal battery life and software aimed at giving children access to digital media. Adults could also use a Dynabook, but the target audience was children." etc. A: Steven John Freer in 1979 A: The "clam shell" design which represents our modern laptop was created in 1979 by William Moggridge (a Briton) for GRiD Systems Corporation. GRiD's Compass Computer entered the market in 1981. GRiD was acquired by Tandy Corporation in 1988. Tandy recognizing the significance of the GRiD Patent portfolio (which also represented over 20 patents for hand writing recognition and pen based computing) aggressively pursued settlements with most of the major laptops and computers sales company . As a former GRiD exec we always wished we could have had the resources to do the same prior to the Tandy acquisition. GRiD was sold again in 1993 to AST Computers with Tandy holding onto to the GRiD patents. A: One of the first commercially available laptop computers was invented by Adam Osborne in 1981. It was called the "Osborne I" and cost $1795. It came bundled with $1500 worth of programs. It had a tiny computer screen built into it. (The Osborne I and Kaypro II were not really laptops, but "luggables" - at 23.5 lb and 29 lb, respectively) One of the first modern style of "laptops" may well have been the Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 100, with weight of approximately 3.1 lb. A: Compaq Portable circa 1981 or 1982? I can't say if this was the definitive "invention" of the laptop, but I do remember that, when IBM PC XTs were running 8088 processors at 4.77MHz with 5MB disk drives, Compaq Computer introduced their first computer which was considered portable at the time. It was about the same size as a modern mini-tower laid on its side, included a green monochrome monitor that was about 7 inches diagonally, and had a full-sized keyboard with a coiled cord that snapped over the monitor. I think it ran an 8086 processor at 6 or 8MHz. Below is a link to a site with several photographs. Steve Jobs Designed in 1979 by a Briton, William Moggridge, for Grid Systems Corporation, the Grid Compass was one fifth the weight of any model equivalent in performance and was used by NASA on the space shuttle program in the early 1980's. A 340K byte bubble memory lap-top computer with die-cast magnesium case and folding electroluminescent graphics display screen. Other computers before this were portable, but too heavy, and therefore, it is questionable if they can be called laptops. A few other models that were lightweight had two line, text only displays and should also be considered.
Asked in Inventions, History of the Web

Who invented the Internet?

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Answer The Internet was originally developed by DARPA - the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency - as a means to share information on defense research between involved universities and defense research facilities. Originally it was just email and FTP sites as well as the Usenet, where scientists could question and answer each other. It was originally called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork). The concept was developed starting in 1964, and the first messages passed were between UCLA and the Stanford Research Institute in 1969. Leonard Kleinrock of MIT had published the first paper on packet switching theory in 1961. Since networking computers was new to begin with, standards were being developed on the fly. Once the concept was proven, the organizations involved started to lay out some ground rules for standardization. One of the most important was the communications protocol, TCP/IP, developed by Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn in 1974. Robert Metcalfe is credited with Ethernet, which is the basic communication standard in networked computers. Tim Berners-Lee, who perhaps specified technological applicability and/or linguistic construction of HTML while working at CERN, is chiefly credited for the ease of use and wide public adoption of the web. His website is: w3.org. Al Gore really did have a substantial part in the US legal framework and governmental issues related to the Internet; he never said he invented it. There wasn't just ONE person who invented the Internet. The Internet is just a way to view files and information that someone puts onto a server. The Internet is just a way to access the information. Leonard Kleinrock was the first person to write a paper on the idea of packet switching (which is essential for the Internet to work. He wrote this idea in 1961. Others who were essential to what we now call the Internet. (Without these guys, the Internet wouldn't exist): Larry G. Roberts created the first functioning long-distance computer networks in 1965 and designed the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), the seed from which the modern Internet grew, in 1966. Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) which moves data on the modern Internet, in 1972 and 1973. If any two people "invented the Internet," it was Kahn and Cerf - but they have publicily stated that "no one person or group of people" invented the Internet. Radia Perlman invented the spanning tree algorithm in the 1980s. Her spanning tree algorithm allows efficient bridging between separate networks. Without a good bridging solution, large-scale networks like the Internet would be impractical. Answer Like most things, the internet has many fathers. But the Americans Bob Metcalf and Dave Boggs at Xerox PARC in 1974 should get most of the credit. There is a hilarious memo on the www from Metcalf's Xerox boss dismissing the idea as foolish. But Tim Berners-Lee in about 1992 invented the world wide web. This was adapted from other search engines like Gopher, but was chiefly responsible for the ease of use and wide adoption of the WWW+Internet. Tim Berners-Lee is the inventor of the World Wide Web, commonly expressed as 'the internet'. A single person did not create the Internet that we know and use today. Below is a listing of several different people who've helped contribute and develop the Internet. The idea The initial idea is credited as being Leonard Kleinrock's after he published his first paper entitled "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets" on May 31, 1961. In 1962 J.C.R. Licklider becomes the first Director of IPTO and gave his vision of a galactic network. In addition to the ideas from Licklider and Kleinrock, Robert Taylor helped create the idea of the network, which later became ARPANET. Initial creation The Internet as we know it today first started being developed in the late 1960's. In the summer of 1968, the Network Working Group (NWG) held its first meeting chaired by Elmer Shapirowith the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) with attendees: Steve Carr, Steve Crocker, Jeff Rulifson, andRon Stoughton. In the meeting the group discussed solving issues related to getting hosts to communicate with each other. In December 1968, Elmer Shapiro with SRI released a report "A Study of Computer Network Design Parameters." Based on this work and earlier work done by Paul Baran, Thomas Marill and others;Lawrence Roberts and Barry Wessler helped to create the final version of the Interface Message Processor (IMP) specifications. Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) was later awarded the contract to design and build the IMP sub network. Introduction of the Internet to the general public UCLA puts out a press release introducing the public to the Internet on July 3, 1969. First network equipment August 29, 1969 the first network switch and the first piece of network equipment called "IMP", which is short for (Interface Message Processor) is sent to UCLA. On September 2, 1969 the first data moves from UCLA host to the switch. The first distributed message and network crash On Friday October 29, 1969 at 10:30 p.m., the first Internet message was sent from computer science Professor Leonard KleinRock's laboratory at UCLA, after the second piece of network equipment was installed at SLI. This connection not only enabled the first transmission to be made, but is also considered to be the first Internet backbone. The first message to be distributed was "LO", which was an attempt at "LOGIN" by Charley S. Kline to log into the SLI computer from UCLA. However, the message was unable to be completed because the SLI system crashed. Shortly after the crash, the issue was resolved and he was able to log into the computer. E-mail is developed Ray Tomlinson introduces network e-mail in 1972. The first messaging system to send messages across a network to other users. TCP is developed Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn design TCP during 1973 and later publish it with the help of Yogen Dalaland Carl Sunshine in December of 1974 in RFC 675. First commercial network A commercial version of ARPANET known as Telenet is introduced in 1974 and considered by many to be the first Internet Service Provider (ISP). Ethernet is conceived Bob Metcalfe develops Ethernet idea in 1973. TCP/IP is created In 1978 TCP splits into TCP/IP driven by Danny Cohen, David Reed, and John Shoch to support real-time traffic. This allows the creation of UDP. TCP/IP is later standardized into ARPANET in 1983 and is still the primary protocol used for the Internet. DNS is introduced Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postel introduce DNS in 1984. HTML In 1990 Tim Berners-Lee develops HTML, which made a huge contribution to how we navigate and view the Internet today. WWW Tim Berners-Lee introduces WWW to the public on August 6, 1991.
Asked in Inventions, Math History

Who invented the abacus?

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The first reported and substantiated use of an abacus, or abacus-like instrument was in Sumeria between 2,700 and 2,300 BCE - or roughly 4,700 years ago. This used a table of columns with each column equivalent to an order of magnitude above the previous column; just as we would have columns for x10, x100, x1000, x10000. During the next 2000 years various forms of this came into common usage across areas of the world (Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, India, China, Greece, Rome). Some were similar in appearance, while others used the same principals, but looked slightly different. For example the Roman abacus used a clay tablet with columns and counting stones (a counting board), while the Chinese version looked almost identical, but had fixed string columns with counting stones attached to them - similar how most people picture an abacus. The spread and variance in design of the abacus is probably due to the movement of early traders across the early trade routes (Silk Road etc.). The abacus is still made extensive use of today, as they are simple to use, fast and don't require batteries to operate them. The word abacus comes to us by way of Latin as a mutation of the Greek word abax. In turn, the Greeks may have adopted the Phoenician word abak, meaning "sand," although some authorities lean toward the Hebrew word abhaq, meaning "dust." Irrespective of the source, the original concept referred to a flat stone covered with sand (or dust) into which numeric symbols were drawn. The first abacus was almost certainly based on such a stone, with pebbles being placed on lines drawn in the sand. Over time, the stone was replaced by a wooden frame supporting thin sticks, braided hair, or leather thongs, onto which clay beads or pebbles with holes were threaded. A variety of different types of abacus were developed, but the most popular became those based on the bi-quinary system, which utilizes a combination of two bases (base-2 and base-5) to represent decimal numbers. Although the abacus does not qualify as a mechanical calculator, it certainly stands proud as one of first mechanical aids to calculation. Both the abacus and the counting board are mechanical aids used for counting; they are not calculators in the sense we use the word today. The person operating the abacus performs calculations in their head and uses the abacus as a physical aid to keep track of the sums, the carrys, etc. What did the first counting board look like? The earliest counting boards are forever lost because of the perishable materials used in their construction. However, educated guesses can be made about their construction, based on early writings of Plutarch (a priest at the Oracle at Delphi) and others. In outdoor markets of those times, the simplest counting board involved drawing lines in the sand with ones fingers or with a stylus, and placing pebbles between those lines as place-holders representing numbers (the spaces between 2 lines would represent the units 10s, 100s, etc.). The more affluent people, could afford small wooden tables having raised borders that were filled with sand (usually coloured blue or green). A benefit of these counting boards on tables, was that they could be moved without disturbing the calculation- the table could be picked up and carried indoors. With the need for portable devices, wooden boards with grooves carved into the surface were then created and wooden markers (small discs) were used as place-holders. The wooden boards then gave way to even more more durable materials like marble and metal (bronze) used with stone or metal markers. There is no way that anyone can tell who invented the abacus. But it must have been first used as an intermediate way of noting the computation or count before commiting the final result on papyrus for the Egyptians, or on paper or whatever the Greeks used to write their records on. Remember that the four fundamental operations would have been impossible on both Egypt and Greece's system of writing numbers, but notice that the system of numeration of both are forerunners of the Hindu base 10 system of numeration. This means that the systems of writing numbers - Hindu, Greek, Egyptian, are in a sense the same. All three write numbers in the 1 to 9, 10 to 90, 100 to 900 patterns. The numeration system of Greece and Egypt were the cumbersome to use that Rome decided to simplify the writing of numbers, limiting to IVXLCDM and the dash the symbols - overly simplyfying it but emphasizing all the more their need for the Roman Abacus to make their computations. It could have been the Roman Abacus that served as inspiration to the Chinese Abacus, which is strictly speaking an Hexadecimal Abacus. The Polos, the uncle and father of Marco Polo, who reached China in 1272, must have introduced this innovation to the court of Kublai Khan. One account of the Chinese Abacus mentioned that it first came to notice in the 14th century which is 28 years from 1272. If the Suan Pan became widely used in the mid or late 14th century, that was just enough time for an innovation to filter below from the top, if we are to remember that the Hindu numeration the Arabs brought to Europe via Spain and Italy took several hundred years, from the time Leonardo of Pisa first mentioned it in his book in 1202. The Filipino Abacus referred to in an earlier note and twisted to sound as if a Filipino invented the abacus, referred to a nine-beaded color-coded by period decimal Filipino Abacus.
Asked in Internet, Inventions, Computer History, History of the Web

Who invented the internet and what year was it?

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JCR Licklider put forward the basic design in 1963. The modern internet requires tcp/ip. Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn, in 1982, designed tcp/ip. l
Asked in Mobile Phones, Inventions, Electronics Engineering, Wireless Communication

Who invented the cell phone and when?

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Martin Cooper invented the cell (mobile) phone. He was the first one to make a call and speak on his moble phone. Mr Cooper, born December 26, 1928, wanted people to be able to carry their phones with them anywhere. While he was a project manager at Motorola in 1973, Cooper set up a base station in New York with the first working prototype of a cellular telephone, the Motorola Dyna-Tac. After some initial testing in Washington for the F.C.C., Mr. Cooper and Motorola took the phone technology to New York to show the public. The First Cellphone (1973) Name: Motorola Dyna-Tac Size: 9 x 5 x 1.75 inches Weight: 2.5 pounds Display: None Number of Circuit Boards: 30 Talk time: 35 minutes Recharge Time: 10 hours Features: Talk, listen, dial See related links for further information on Martin Cooper and his invention. The idea of the cell phone began in the 1920's with police radios, but it wasn't until 1947 that the first one was made by Bell labs. In 1974 Dr. Martin Cooper is given credit for the cell phone that is most like the ones we have today. He was working for Motorola at the time. The phone was only for government use and in 1984 it was sold to the public for the first time. The early cell phones were large, heavy, and copied land line phones in style. They were carried in a zippered bag with the whole bottom as the battery. The cell phone was first thought of in the 1920's when the use of police radios began. In 1947 Bell Labs made the first cell phone, but it took Dr. Cooper of Motorola to make a cell phone in 1974 for the government. The public use of cell phones began in 1984. Your question has two friendus. The phone was invented in 1889 by Bell. The cell phone idea began in the 1930's, but in 1947 Bell Labs made a cell type phone. The first cell phone inventor id given to Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1974. This phone was sold to the government. The public did not get it until 1984. It was made by Bell labs in 1947, but the man given the most credit for it is Dr. Martin Cooper who made one very much like what we have today in 1973. We knew someday everybody would have one. Martin Cooper created the "DynaTAC," the first commercial cell phone, which hit the market in 1983. (CNN) -- In 1973, Martin Cooper changed the world, although he didn't know it yet. With the invention there was concern regarding brain cancer due to the fact that cell phones send out high frequency of radio waves. It was invented by Will Maacmillan in 1969 —Doctor Martin Cooper invented the modern cell phone. He invented the technology responsible for the cell phone when was the Director of Research and Development at Motorola. Cooper is also known as the first person to make a call on a cell phone. His groundbreaking call took place in April of 1973 in New York. He is currently the CEO of an antenna corporation.
Asked in Inventions, Submarines

Who invented the submarine?

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Submarines were envisioned long ago as an undersea weapon to be used against surface ships, but technology could not deliver one for practical naval warfare for hundreds of years following their ideation. Though modern historians credit the submarine's invention to one individual, it's not quite that cut and dry. As it is probable that the earliest sailors wondered what it might be like to sail beneath the sea, it might be best to say that the submarine appeared as the result of a journey of many technological and scientific steps over hundreds of years. The creation of a pressure hull of sorts had to be coupled with solutions to problems associated with buoyancy as well as water pressure. All this had to be merged with weapons, crew facilities, and the critical issue of suitable propulsion, air, ballast control, etc. Imagine trying to build a fully functioning submarine with the tools of a blacksmith. While there were many who contributed to submarine development over the centuries, there are several key individuals who are responsible for advancing submarine design, development, and engineering over the course of several hundred years, ultimately leading to the technologically advanced submarines we have today: Leonardo da Vinci Cornelius Jacobszoon Drebbel William Bourne David Bushnell Robert Fulton Horace Hunley John P. Holland Hyman G. Rickover Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci conceptualized the submarine, and it is possible (probable) that others could have thought of the idea of an undersea vehicle, but the technology to put a working model in the water and safely and effectively operate it didn't come along for over a century following Leonardo. William Bourne / Cornelius Jacobszoon Drebbel Historians credit the invention of the submarine to William Bourne, a British mathematician and ex-Royal Navy gunner who published a design in 1578. The first navigable submarine for which reliable construction data exists was built from Bourne's design in 1620 by Cornelius Jacobszoon Drebbel, a Dutch inventor in the employ of King James I of England. David Bushnell's Turtle David Bushnell's submarine Turtle, designed by Bushnell and built in Old Saybrook, Connecticut in 1775, was so named because it looked like a turtle due to its shape. It was manually powered, constructed of wood, heavily covered in pitch and reinforced with metal bands. Though it is considered the first submarine used in combat (Revolutionary War) its attacks on British warships were never successful. This was due in large part because it didn't have a way to penetrate the copper cladding around the lower part of British warship hulls. It was sunk by the British while attached to its tender. Robert Fulton's Nautilus Robert Fulton's submarine Nautilus, designed between 1793-97, was the first practical working submarine design of record. It had a working ballast system, successfully dove to 25 feet and returned to the surface without any deaths, and successfully attacked stationary targets. Living in France at the time, Fulton petitioned the French Government twice to fund his project, but was rejected. He later approached the French Minister of Marine to subsidize the construction, and was finally given permission in 1800. Though it had initially impressed the French during trials, the Nautilus suffered from leaks, which is the primary reason Fulton gave up. When Napoleon wanted to see it, he found that Fulton had already dismantled the Nautilus and destroyed many of its key components. Napoleon thought that Fulton was a charlatan, and the French Navy had no use for what they believed then to be a suicidal machine. Even though Fulton's project didn't continue, the British, wanting to keep control over what appeared to them to be a potentially lethal device, brought Fulton to Britain to continue his submarine work. However, with Nelson's victory over the French fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar, the French threat was eliminated, and Fulton was ignored until he finally left to return to America. His papers were left at the U.S. Consul in London, and went undiscovered until 1920. He never again worked on submarine designs, though his contributions to submarine development are still remembered and honored today. Horace L. Hunley & the H.L. Hunley Submarine While its place in submarine evolution is small, her place in changing Naval Warfare history forever is significant. The first submarine to successfully sink an enemy combatant, the H.L. Hunley, was commandeered by the Confederate States' Army from its inventor, Confederate Marine Engineer Horace Lawson Hunley, and his business partners. Built specifically as a submarine by Hunley, it incorporated a hand-cranked screw (7 crewmen) for propulsion, 2 watertight hatches, 2 conning towers (fore and aft), and a working ballast system. Her spar torpedo (essentially a long pole with a remote-detonated explosive charge on the end) was designed to pierce wooden ships with the charge, then back away and detonate it from a safe distance using an attached wire. It was successfully used to attack and sink the Union sloop-of-war USS Housatonic on February 17, 1864, then anchored in Charleston Harbor, during the the Civil War Union blockade of Charleston, S.C. Often incorrectly referred to as the CSS Hunley, it in fact was never a commissioned warship in the Confederate States of America. It was commandeered by the Confederate Army, crewed by 1 Confederate sailor and 8 Confederate Army soldiers. Though the Hunley was thought to have been sunk by the explosion of the attack, investigation of historical records showed that she had signaled her base on Sullivan's Island with a blue carbide lamp that her attack was successful, and that she was returning to base. New forensic evidence uncovered after the recovery of the Hunley several years ago revealed that her crew likely died of asphyxiation due to lack of oxygen, while returning to Sullivan's Island. One key factor is that the crew remains were found at their posts, rather than grouped near an exit, which would be the natural response to sinking. Had they successfully returned from her mission, it is likely that submarine engineering and evolution would've advanced a lot faster than it did. John Phillip Holland & the Diesel-Electric Submarine The "better" submarine design, over 30 years after the Hunley's sinking, incorporated internal combustion engines, electric motors, generators, and battery technology. John Phillip Holland's USS Holland (SS-1), the U.S. Navy's first commissioned submarine (launched in May 1897, commissioned in 1900), was the first real effective submarine design. Incorporating rechargeable battery technology and combustion engines for surface transit/battery charging, the Holland is considered the forerunner of all modern submarines. Holland was also the first to apply for and receive patents on key submarine technology, much of which is essentially the same today, though more advanced in some areas. The company founded to build submarines to his designs, Electric Boat, still survives as one of the United States' premier submarine builders, General Dynamics' Electric Boat Division, in Groton, CT. Hyman G. Rickover, Nuclear Power, and the Nautilus Not until the advent of Nuclear Power and the vision of Naval Engineer Hyman G. Rickover (Admiral Rickover, "Father of the Nuclear Navy"), did submarines become true submersibles. Until that time, submarines were essentially designed as surface vessels that had a limited submerged operational capability, and were designed to run faster on the surface than underwater. Captured U-boats after WWII showed how far the Germans had advanced the art of submarine hull design and technology; while many of these innovations found their way into modern submarines, it was Rickover who realized that harnessing a nuclear reactor in a small design used to power submarines (and later ships) would give submarine warfare a significant technological boost. Unlike diesel-electric technology, nuclear power offers the advantage of huge power generation, which means better equipment (sensors, weapons, navigation, huge fresh water / air generating capacity, etc.), underwater speed (a major departure from previous designs) and virtually unlimited cruising range. With Rickover's successful pressurized-water reactor design (still in use today) installed on the United States' (and the world's) first nuclear powered submarine, USS Nautilus (SSN-571), nuclear power changed submarine technology and warfare from the limited role that it had in previous conflicts to the multiple mission threat it is today. The application of Nuclear Power "sealed the deal" and allowed for the development of the highly capable and extremely complex modern submarine. Modern boats are only limited by her crew requirements, can dive deeper and move much faster underwater than on the surface, and have many different tactical capabilities. They are true submarines by every definition.
Asked in Inventions, Atomic Bombs

Who invented atomic bombs?

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Leo Szilard, a Hungarian Jew living in London at the time, in 1933. He patented it in 1934, the patent GB630726 was granted in 1936 and immediately classified to prevent Nazi Germany from using it. It took 12 more years before the US was able to build the first ones, after an enormous investment in industrial infrastructure. Szilard's patent was not made public until 1949. During WW2 this was done under the Manhattan Project. There was a large team of scientists, the chief one was Dr Robert Oppenheimer. Professor Rudolph Peierls and Otto Frisch were also involved. The atomic bomb was originally invented in 1940 by German scientists, Professor Rudolph Peierls and Otto Frisch who were both working for Britain at the time. During World War II, the United States, with the assistance (collaboration) of physicists, mathematicians, and engineers from the U.S., Britain, Canada and Europe, completed the Manhattan Project to produce the first atomic bomb. (The project started as the "Manhattan District Engineers" and only became "The Manhattan Project" some time later). There was some early speculation about the possibility of what could be done if a nuclear chain reaction was unleashed in a way that would allow it to build without control. For a roll call, consider that Robert Oppenheimer was the head of "science" for the Manhattan Project, and (in alphabetical order) Felix Block, David Bohm, Niels Bohr, Enrico Fermi, James Franck, Otto Frisch, Klaus Fuchs, Rudolf Peierls, Emilio Segre, Leo Szilard, Edward Teller and Eugene Wigner all played crucial roles in getting the weapon designed and built. The physicist Albert Einstein did not participate directly in the invention of the atomic bomb-but was instrumental in facilitating its development. His Special Theory of Relativity emphasized that a large amount of energy could be released from a small amount of matter. This was expressed by the equation E=mc2 (energy = mass times the speed of light squared). The atomic bomb would clearly illustrate this principle. The first demonstration of "the gadget" (the code name for the first atomic bomb) was at Trinity site in Alamogordo, New Mexico, and it proved that the weapon would detonate and that the chain would build as predicted. The second and third demonstrations were conducted in Japan, which brought a quick end to the Second World War. Just up to and during World War 2, Germany was also working to develop atomic weapons, but was hampered by many technical and political problems (including sabotage and Allied bombings) which prevented their successfully completing their work. This left the U.S. as the only nation to ever unleash nuclear weapons in an attack. The first fission weapons, also known as "atomic bombs," were developed jointly by the United States, Britain and Canada during World War II in what was called the Manhattan Project. (Wikipedia) Leo Szilard invented the atomic bomb in 1933 while crossing a London street. He patented it in 1934. (British patent 630,726) The Manhattan Project built the first one in 1945. Robert oppenheimer the united states made the atomic bomb
Asked in Inventions, Maharashtra, Mumbai, Manchester

Who is Shenai-Khatkhate?

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Dr. Shenai-Khatkhate is a electronic materials scientist from U.S.A.
Asked in Inventions, Telephones

Who invented the telephone?

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Alexander Graham Bell, a Scottish-born inventor, scientist, philanthropist and teacher of the deaf is the person most widely credited as the inventor of the electric telephone. On March 7th 1876 he became the first to receive a patent for this device, and at that time resided in Salem, Massachusetts. Alexander Graham Bell conceived of the telephone at his summer home in Brantford, Ontario and physically created his first phone in Boston, Massachusetts (where, he said, it was 'born'). This was a result of his research into improving the telegraph system. Bell was experimenting into improving the telegraph system so that multiple messages could be sent at the same time (his theory of the 'harmonic telegraph' was based on the principle that several messages could be sent simultaneously along the same wire if the different telegraph signals each had a different pitch). However at the same time he began working on the novel idea that speech could be transmitted electronically, as he accidentally discovered that the sound of a spring being twanged could be heard over his harmonic telegraph system. Almost a year later in March 1876 Bell uttered the first famous words into the device to his assistant in the next room: "Mr. Watson, come here -I want to see you". A young black man, Lewis Lattimer, was employed as a draftsman by the patent law firm that Alexander Graham Bell used, and contributed to Bell's patent drawings. Lattimer become a successful inventor in his own right. As with many other important technological devices, several people often worked on and independently created the same, or similar devices in the same general time period -an example being the modern navigational quadrant or sextant. While Bell was the first to receive a patent for the telephone, several others preceded his research and credit for inventing the electric telephone remains in dispute. Despite the claims of those defending Alexander Graham Bell, its been suggested that both Antonio Meucci and then Elisha Gray successfully invented telephones in the United States before Alexander Graham Bell did in 1876. Some of the others who performed pioneering experimental work with electrical voice transmissions over wires included Thomas Edison, Innocenzo Manzetti, Charles Bourseul and Johann Philipp Reis. Ironically in 2001 the United States Congress passed a 'resolution' stating that given all the facts of the patent disputes between Gray and Bell, under no terms could Alexander Graham Bell have been awarded the patent for the telephone by the United States Patent and Trademark Office in 1876. However that Congressional resolution by itself served only as a declaration, and did not annul or modify the patent Bell received in 1876. The 2001 resolution was also subsequently followed by another legislative declaration upholding Bell's priority and his status as inventor of the telephone. The person who first successfully 'patented' the telephone was indisputably Alexander Graham Bell, however given what we currently know, earlier inventors of 'telephone-like' devices may have been Meucci or even others before him. Interestingly, the commercialization of Alexander Graham Bell's telephone was actually performed by several independent businesses which eventually created the 'Bell System' (and later AT&T), to which 'Alec', as he preferred to be called, participated very little in. Alexander Graham Bell, who went on to become an eminent scientist, inventor and humanitarian, considered the telephone to be an intrusion into his real work and refused to have one in his study. Differing Opinions According to an article in the UK Guardian in 2002, Bell did NOT invent the telephone. The article claims that Italian-American Antonio Meucci is the true father of modern communications. See the Related Link section below to read the complete article. Alexander Graham Bell invented the modern telephone after years of working with the deaf. His studies in sound led to a contract to develop an "acoustic telegraph" and his first working model used a liquid transmitter that was later discarded. Thomas Edison made some improvements over the telephone that improved the clarity of the sound, most notably the carbon microphone. graham bell Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell patented a telephone in March, 1876. Others had experimented with the transmission of speech over wires since the invention of the telegraph. Bell used a vibrating diaphragm (microphone) to control the flow of electricity through a wire, such that when the electric flow reached a coil at the other end of the phone line, the coil vibrated another diaphragm (the speaker) in exactly the same pattern. This was efficient within the frequencies of human speech, and later, more precise microphones were able to recreate recognizable voices. Alexander Graham Bell is considered the inventor of the telephone in the USA, Canada, and Scotland, other countries that had no historical affiliation with him tend to look for possible inventors of their own ethnic background or their own country as THE inventor of the telephone Alexander Graham Bell. :-) He invented the telephone trying to improve hearing conditions and limitations of Blind people such as his mother. Hope I helped! ~WonX~ Alexander Graham Bell Alexander bell Alexander Graham Bell It was Alexander Graham Bell on March 10, 1876. I think you mean "INVENTED". Graham Bell This is the person who invended the telephone Alexandrew Bell Alexander Graham Bell was the inventor of the telephone Alexander Graham Bell Grahambel
Asked in Inventions, NASCAR

Who is the inventor of NASCAR?

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The person who started NASCAR was Bill France. It was actually first called The National Championship Stock Car Circuit when it was formed in December 1947. Later that year it became known as The National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing, Aand is now known as the National Association ffor Stock Car Auto Racing.
Asked in Inventions, Filipino Language and Culture

7 uri ng pagpapahalaga?

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1. pagpapahalaga sa sarili 2.pagpapahalaga sa kapwa 3.pagpapahalaga sa lahat ng nilalang ng diyos 4.pagpapahalaga sa ari-arian 5.pagpapahalaga sa awtoridad 6.pang araw-araw na kortesiya 7.pagiwas sa masasamang salita at gawi
Asked in Entertainment & Arts, Inventions, Amusement Parks

What date was the Merry-Go-Round invented?

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The first example of the Merry-Go-Round, or Carousel was in Paris in 1605. They were developed in Italy though. These usually took place in squares or large courtyards, and consisted of elaborately costumed riders and horses (usually from the cavalry) performing choreographed routines such as forming shapes together, riding in lines criss-cross against each other. They often took place at night, with riders carrying torches, and were accompanied by music. for more info go here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merry_go_round The fairground machine called a Merry-go-Round or (in America) Carousel was developed in the 19C when practical power-units made them viable. Merry-Go-Round is generally the public's, not trade's, name. In the UK fair trade at least, they were and are known generically as "rides", and more specifically by a descriptive or trade-name. The traditional ride with horse and cockerel "sculptures" as seats arranged to rise and fall as the machine rotates, is called a "Galloper". Initially they were driven by a small steam "centre-engine" on the truck that forms the machine's base on the fairground, and the transport trailer for travelling between fairs. Later rides became powered electrically, from a generator first on the steam "Showman's Road Locomotive" (large, powerful traction-engine) that towed the ride from town to town; then on lorries that performed, and still perform, the same duty. Typically they were fitted with a "self-playing" organ - using mechanical perforated-card readers to control the stops and notes - for the role now taken by the disco sound-system on modern rides. However the name "steam organ" for these instruments is a complete misnomer, for although they may have been powered by an auxiliary steam-engine the pipes always used only air. British rides always run from right to left as you watch them. American (& I think Continental European) rides traditionally go from left to right.
Asked in Inventions, Office Supplies

How were pens invented?

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Originally, it is surmised that people used plants to write with... long thin leaves or stems, and that eventually led, through innumerable technological breakthroughs, to the pen. Ancient Egyptians are the first people we know of to use this innovation. Please see the related links for more information. Originally, it is surmised that people used plants to write with... long thin leaves or stems, and that eventually led, through innumerable technological breakthroughs, to the pen. Ancient Egyptians are the first people we know of to use this innovation. Please see the related links for more information.
Asked in Inventions, Internet, History of the Web

What is some information about the invention of the internet?

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Invention of the Internet Many people think that the Internet is a recent innovation, when in fact the fundamental ideas behind the Internet have been around for over a quarter century. The development of what we now call the Internet started in 1957 when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first satellite, beating the United States into space. The powers behind the American military at the time became highly alarmed as this meant that the USSR could theoretically launch bombs into space, and then drop them anywhere on earth. In 1958 the concerns of people in the US military triggered the creation of the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). DARPA's initial role was to jump start American research in technology, find safeguards against a space-based missile attack and to reclaim the technological lead from the USSR. After only 18 months after the creation of DARPA, the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency had developed and deployed the first US satellite. DARPA went on to have a direct contribution to the development of the Internet by appointing Joseph Licklider to head the new Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO). It was the job of the IPTO to further the work previously done by members of the "SAGE" (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) program and develop technologies to protect the US against a space-based nuclear attack. Licklider envisaged the potential benefits of a countrywide communications network, influencing his successors to implement his vision and to hire Lawrence Roberts who at that time was carrying out research with networks which was also being funded by DARPA. Roberts led development of the ARPANet network architecture, and based it on the new idea of packet switching. A special computer called an Interface Message Processor was developed to realise the design. The ARPANet first went live in October 1969, with communications between the University of California in Los Angeles and the Stanford Research Institute. The first networking protocol used on the ARPANet was the Network Control Program. In 1983, it was replaced with the TCP/IP protocol, which is still the standard used today. In 1990, the National Science Foundation took over management of what was then called the NSFNet, and significantly expanded its reach by connecting it to the CSNET in Universities throughout North America, and later to the EUnet throughout research facilities in Europe. Thanks in large part to the NSF's free-thinking management, and the growing popularity of the web, the nature of the Internet changed quickly in 1992, when the U.S. government began pulling out of network management and commercial entities offered Internet access to the general public for the first time. This change marked the beginning of the Internet's astonishing expansion. According to a survey conducted by CommerceNet and Nielsen Media Research in 1997, the number of users worldwide was believed to be well into the tens of millions. The so called Internet explosion coincided with the advent of increasingly powerful yet reasonably priced personal computers with easy-to-use GUI's (Graphical User Interfaces). The result was an attraction of recent computer converts to the Internet, and new multimedia capabilities, the size, scope and design of which allows users to: connect easily through ordinary personal computers exchange electronic mail with friends and colleagues post and update frequently, information for others to access access multimedia information that includes sound, photographic images and video access diverse attitudes and perspectives from around the world to directly and transparently communicate between computers Today, the Internet is not owned or funded by any one institution, organisation, or government, it is a self-sustaining widespread information infrastructure accessible to hundreds of millions of people world-wide. The Internet is, however, directed by the Internet Society (ISOC), which is composed of volunteers. ISOC appoints the IAB (Internet Architecture Board) sub-council, the appointed members of which decide on standards, network resources, and network addresses. The day-to-day issues of Internet operation is taken care by of curtsy of a volunteer group called the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). In brief a small number of governing boards work to establish common standards, few rules or single organisation bind the Internet, essentially the Internet is in the most part an ungoverned global network of networks. Other s The Internet was invented by the US Department of Defence as a means of communication if we were attacked by Russia. That was in 1969. The WWW on the other hand was invented by an Englishman called Tim Berners-Lee in Switzerland in 1989. The Internet dates back to the 1950s and 60s, although few of us knew of it then as it was part of the American defence system. Some say development started in 1957 when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first satellite. I think it's the difference between pop culture and invention that confuses people. The origins of the Internet stretch back to the 1950s and the invention of the World Wide Web to 1989, but the Internet IS a newish innovation as far as pop culture is concerned as it only really kicked into the lives of the vast majority of us after the 1989 invention of WWW. DARPA was created in 1958. But this only started the research that led to create the Internet. The Network Control Protocol (NCP) was finalized and deployed in December 1970 by the Network Working Group (NWG), led by Steve Crocker. But it was not until RFC 768 "User Datagram Protocol", RFC 791 "Internet Protocol", RFC 792 "Internet Control Message Protocol, RFC 793 "Transmission Control Protocol" were ratified in 1980 and 1981 that the Internet took shape. Modern protocols like e-mail, ftp, telnet, http ... all depend on these underlying protocols. The ARPANET host protocol was switched from NCP to TCP/IP as of January 1, 1983. The underlying protocols that run the Internet have fundamentally changed since this date. Much later on Mar. 11, 1999 Al Gore claims to have invented the Internet: "During my service in the United States Congress, I took the initiative in creating the Internet." References: http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml The seed of what would become the internet was created by ARPANET in 1969. It was basically a group of researchers working for the Department of Defense.
Asked in Inventions, Albert Einstein

What did Albert Einstein invent?

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Einstein was best known as a theoretical physicist, but working in a patent office in Germany, he also became a less well known inventor. In physics, Albert Einstein is responsible for developing his Special and General Theories of Relativity (E=Mc2), and he did some important work on the photoelectric effect. He co-invented a type of refrigerator with no moving parts; patent number 1781541. An electromagnetic pump; patent number GB303065, a self adjusting camera; patent number US2058562, and a sound replication device; patent number DE590783. Along with dozens of other patents worldwide. Its no that he had invented anything really, because he is a physcist, but he had come up with E=mc squared. And the relevance between light and its reflection.
Asked in Inventions, Refrigerators

Who invented the refrigerator?

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Various mechanical refrigeration devices appeared over the years. The first known artificial Refrigeration was demonstrated by William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in 1748, and relied on the process explained by Michael Faraday, but it was not practical. It was big, bulky and took up too much room. An American inventor named Oliver Evans invented a refrigerator in 1804. In 1834, Jacob Perkins invented the "Practical Version" that was a big hit. Dr John Gorrie, a Scot, received a patent in 1851 for an ice-making machine. Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (1842-1934) developed refrigeration in Germany in 1876 . He set up a commercial company in 1879. While the process of the invention of refrigeration actually began as early as the 1700s and many appliances got their start from those early ideas, the idea of the home refrigerator was started by a Frenchman named Marcel Audiffren. His idea and patents were puchased by the American Audiffren Refrigerating Machines Company and units were built in Fort Wayne Indiana by General Electric. They were the precursors to the Frigidaire. The first unit was sold in 1911 for about $1000.00. (see the related link below)
Asked in Jobs & Education, Inventions

Who invented first PCB?

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Monsanto owns the licensing rights.
Asked in Inventions, Football - Soccer, Alphabet History, English Alphabet History

In what country was footballl invented?

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The first mention of anything like football comes from China in the 2nd and 3rd century BC. A military training exercise involved kicking a ball through a target, whilst being attacked by opponents. Something similar also existed in Japan. The first game of this type was played in ancient Greece and Rome, but this was really more like violent dodgeball. The game closest to the modern game developed in Britain over the last 1500 years or so. Its origins are unclear (some say it's Anglo-Saxon, some say it is Celtic), however by the time of Norman conquest in 1066 it was well established. There were hundreds of different variations of the game depending on where in the country you went to. They all had the same basis though; get a ball to the opposition 'goal'. An example of this was played between neighbouring villages. The two villages would meet half way between to start the contest. The objective was to get the ball to the oppositions church by whatever means necessary (except murder, etc.). As the contests tended to be very violent, successive laws and decrees were passed over the centuries, to try and limit playing. Fortunately they were unsuccessful. By the 1800's the games were getting a lot more organised, especially at the universities and big schools. Rules and scoring were beginning to be developed and the 'field' reduced to an appropriate size (i.e. an actual field). This is when the splits started to happen and differences over what the rules should be emerged. In 1863 a meeting was held between the big London clubs and schools to once and for decide upon the rules. Unfortunately, they couldn't. Some schools, such as Rugby and Cheltenham, preferred the more physical game in which handling the ball was allowed (a feat introduced by a student by the name of Web Ellis in 1823), others such as Eton and Harrow, rejected this prefering the more skillful game involving dribbling the ball with the feet. The split was irrevokable. It was decided that handling of the ball could not be allowed (neither could wrestling an opponent, shin kicking, etc). And so the English Football Association was founded and the rules for association football laid down. Eight years later the worlds first competition, the FA cup was started and shortly afterwards the first international between England and Scotland. In Paris in 1904 FIFA was founded - the Federation Internationale de Football Association - association football (or soccer's) World governing body. Football (soccer) is now the worlds biggest sport (bigger than most of the others combined)