Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases or communicable diseases arise from illnesses caused by fungi, viruses, protozoa, bacteria or parasites. These infections can be transmitted through body fluids, airborne inhalation and contaminated foods or objects.

Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Cold and Flu, Infectious Diseases, Immune System

Why do you get Muscle ache with flu?

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Muscle aches caused by a flu virus cannot be accounted for by fluid loss from excretions and emesis alone, because often muscle aches are the first sign of the flu, long before vomiting or diarrhea may ever occur (and they do not occur in most flu infected folk). Instead, it is the increasing body temperature (the fever that is one of the body's most effective responses for killing off heat-susceptible invaders) that causes an increase in water usage at the cellular level. Full body dehydration then almost inevitably occurs, as the flu-infected usually have their thirst and appetite mechanisms decreased as well. However, as the previous writer puts it: One of the most notable symptoms of having the "flu"the is a persistant (and often disgusting!) loss of fluid. This can be a result of vomiting, diarrhea or often a combination of the two. Within this fluid are precious ions (electrolytes) that enable all the good stuff in your body to happen: Muscle contractions, nerve impulses, even basic cellular metabolism! One of the most important (as far as your muscles are concerned) is potassium -- [although calcium, magnesium, and sodium are all equally important but just dont get the same amt of press]. Low potassium levels mean special ion channels in your muscle cells cannot function properly, and that leads to a sensation of "exhaustion", much like you just finished a marathon. Without potassium (and other molecules such as ATP) your muscles just can't function! If you have the flu and you'd like to beat the muscle ache, chow on some high potassium-sodium ratio foods such as avocados or dark green veggies (think spinach); [bananas are merely ok regarding this K/NA ratio, much more important than is absolute amount of potassium alone]. Gatorade or other (preferrably lower in sugar) sports drinks can help both replenish lost electrolytes (like potassium!) AND water, a great two-fer when you're socked in with this bug (watch the sugar level or you'll end up low on potassium again, if you get my drift!).
Asked in Cold and Flu, Infectious Diseases, Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

Can you catch the same flu twice?

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If you are exposed to an identical version of the flu that you had previously after you have recovered fully from it the first time, then your body should have developed immunity to all genetically identical kinds of flu and you would not get it a second time. However, the flu can change by mutations and if it does change enough that the immune system no longer sees it as identical, then you would not have immunity to the mutated strain. This is a similar concept to why we need different seasonal flu vaccine every year and why there are no vaccines for the common cold. You can get the flu twice in one season, but it would not be the same flu virus.
Asked by Eldon Hilpert in Infectious Diseases, Public Health and Safety

How is an epidemic different from a pandemic?

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Epidemics are country-wide diseases. Pandemics are world-wide diseases.
Asked in Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, Bacteria

What would be the appearance of the gram positive bacterium if you forget to counterstain with safranin?

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If you forget to counter stain color of Gram positive would be violet or blue . The above answer is good. Here is why the above answer is good. Yes it would still be Violet or blue. Gram positive bacteria are gram positive, because it holds onto the crystal violet stain that washes out of gram negative bacteria. Counterstaining with safranian turns gram negative bacteria pink to red only because the crystal violet has washed out of the gram negative. The lighter safranian has little to no effect on gram positive bacteria. The cause of the difference has to do with the makeup of the cell wall in the different bacteria.
Asked by Paxton Brown in Infectious Diseases, Viruses (biological), COVID-19

How can we prevent coronavirus?

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According to the CDC, “the best way to prevent illness is to avoid being exposed to this virus.” Some steps you can take to limit your exposure to the virus: Regularly wash your hands for 20 seconds or use a hand sanitizer with at least 60 percent alcohol. Pay attention to hand hygiene, especially when you’ve been in a public place and after coughing, sneezing, or blowing your nose. Practice social distancing by increasing the space between you and other people. That means staying home as much as you can, especially if you feel sick. Disinfect frequently touched surfaces (like keyboards, doorknobs, and light switches) every day. Cover coughs and sneezes with the inside of your elbow or a tissue. Throw the tissue away immediately and wash your hands. Wear a facemask only if you are sick or are caring for someone who’s sick and can’t wear a facemask. For more information on this ever-developing COVID-19 pandemic, consult the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s page dedicated to the virus, found here.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Cold and Flu, Infectious Diseases

How is the common cold spread?

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You are most likely to get a cold if someone sneezes or coughs over you or near you. To avoid the spread this way, you need to stay at least a 6 foot diameter distance from the person. Cold viruses are in the air on respiratory droplets for a short time after a cough or sneeze. Although they can travel in the air for only a matter of seconds and for only about a six foot diameter around the person who coughed or sneezed before they drop out of the air onto surrounding surfaces, that is still one of the most common ways to catch a cold. So, being in a crowded public area where you can not stay at least six feet away from others is one of the most likely ways to catch a cold, besides direct contact with the person who has a cold (shaking hands, touching their skin, sharing eating utensils or kissing) or contact with things they have just contaminated. You can also catch a cold from someone else by touching their mucous membranes or picking up respiratory droplets on your hands that have been ejected with a cough or sneeze and then touching your own nose, eyes or mouth, even hours later. Keep your hands washed frequently and avoid touching your face, especially the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth, and you will more likely stay cold-free. More detail: You can also pick up viruses by touching somewhere a sneeze or cough has touched, e.g., a sick person's hands or used tissues or a nearby counter top or phone. Colds are spread when the viruses enter the body through mucous membranes, typically of the eyes, nose, and mouth. Any transfer of body fluids between an infected person and a healthy person (e.g. a sneeze, a kiss, a shared beverage) can spread a cold. Also, a person with a cold can contaminate a surface such as a table, phone or doorknob with her hands. If a healthy person touches that contaminated doorknob and then rubs her eyes or nose or eats with her hands, she can get the cold. For this reason, regular and thorough hand washing is recommended especially during cold and flu seasons, see the related question below on how to properly wash your hands to remove germs. You can spread a cold by going to school or work or out in public when sick. It is best to stay home and rest to get well, rather than take the virus in public and make others sick, too. For even more detail, see the related questions below.
Asked in Infectious Diseases, Mosquitoes, Malaria

How do mosquitoes give you malaria?

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Mosquitoes bite you to suck the blood. The female require the same for ovulation. In the process, the insect at times bite the patient of malaria. The malaria parasite enters the stomach of the insect. Growth of the parasite takes place there. The parasite travels to the salivary gland of the insect. When the mosquito bites the next victim, the parasites enters the body of the victim. They go to liver. They multiply there. Then the parasites enter the blood stream. They enter the red blood cells. Again they multiply there. When the red cells burst to liberate the parasite, you get the fever with chills. The parasites invade the fresh red blood cells. And the cycle is repeated again and again. Some of the parasite undergo modification to become male and female gametes. When the mosquito sucks the blood of the patient, these gametes enter the body of the insect. They unite there and travel to salivary gland. The cycle continues.The parasite remains infective for life time and infect many victims.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Cold and Flu, Oral Health and Dental Care, Infectious Diseases

Why does your teeth hurt when you have a common cold?

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The very tips of the roots of your top teeth sit very close to and sometimes in your sinus cavity. When you have a cold and your sinuses are blocked and inflammed it put pressure on the teeth which can be very sore. It does not cause any long term damage to the teeth but it can feel just like a tooth ache.
Asked in Infectious Diseases, Medical Definitions and Word Differences

What is a example of a general infection?

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General infections can be divided into two categories, namely systemic infection and local infection, The cause of a systemic infection comprises of bacteria or virus. The main characteristic of such an infection is that it affects the bloodstream of an individual commonly spread from the genetal area. A local infection can be explained as that infection, which does not affect the whole body of an individual. Rather, it is limited to a specific portion of the body. It does not attack the bloodstream and is limited to the outer surface of the body. Some of the most common examples of a local infection include an infected wound, an infected cut, usually in the form of puss.
Asked in Infectious Diseases, Malaria

What type of microbe causes malaria?

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'Protozoans' is the term usually used to talk about the protists that cause malaria in humans or in other vertebrate erythrocytes. Protozoa belong to a large group of eukaryotic organisms that are single-celled. These are usually microscopic and include amoeba, ciliates, flagellates and sporozoans. In malaria, the protozoans can also be called 'malaria parasites.' Transmission: The sporozoan protozoa that cause malaria are transmitted through a mosquito feeding upon the blood of an infected host and ingesting a number of these parasites. The protozoa develop within the mosquito and are secreted through its saliva to infect other potential hosts when bitten. Once inside a human (or other vertebrate erythrocyte hosts), they can spend a protracted period (from weeks or months to, potentially, years) inside the host's liver and spleen, where they reproduce in the blood (specifically, within the red blood cells, erythrocytes). Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by any of a number of protozoans spread by the female Anopheles mosquito. Only Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria, and they must have been infected through a previous blood meal taken from an infected host. It is common in tropical and subtropical climates in endemic areas including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Americas. These locations have significant amounts of rain fall and consistent hot temperatures. These warm, consistent temperatures and moisture provide mosquitoes with the environment they need to breed continuously year round. Scientific names: The causative organisms include protists of the genus Plasmodium. The three most common organisms in malaria infections are P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. falciparum. Falciparum malaria is the most serious of the three, causing about 80% of all cases of human malaria and 90% of deaths, and is becoming more frequently drug resistant. Another less common type of Plasmodium that can cause malaria is P. malariae. A fifth type, P. knowlesi, is not thought to infect humans. Prevention: To prevent the disease, a person in the areas where these mosquitoes live should reduce the number of bites they receive. Mosquito netting used around beds can reduce the number of mosquitoes and bites and mosquito repellents also help. Symptoms: Symptoms of malaria are fever, shivering, joint pain, vomiting, anemia, hemoglobinuria (when your urine turns red), retinal damage, and convulsions. The classic symptom of malaria is occurrence of sudden coldness followed by rigors (shaking), then fever and sweating lasting four to six hours, which occurs every two days. Other facts: Plasmodium falciparum - the common African type affects 80 - 85% of malaria patients, and is the most severe form of malaria. P. falciparum is also called a 'malign tertian malaria', malign means "evil", and this is the type which most often kills humans. Plasmodium vivax - Milder than Falciparum, is the second most common species to cause the disease malaria. It is also called 'benign tertian malaria', benign means "good", and this type usually doesn't kill humans. Each year, there are approximately 515 million cases of malaria, killing between one and three million people, the majority of whom are young children in Africa. Young children are more prone to getting Malaria than adults are. Ninety percent of malaria-related deaths occur in Africa. Malaria is commonly associated with poverty, but is also a cause of poverty. Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and an enormous public health problem. Malaria is a disease which kills a child every 30 seconds across Africa.
Asked in Cold and Flu, Infectious Diseases, Stomach Flu

Is the stomach flu airborne?

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It is airborne after someone vomits or has diarrhea. Because it a virus, it can be on surfaces or in undercooked food.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Lungs

Is angina contagious?

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Only if the people who get it have been indulging in high fat food and lack of exercise together. Angina is pain caused by narrowing of arteries around the heart, so no.
Asked in Men's Health, Conditions and Diseases, Infectious Diseases

Why does a doctor hold your testicles while you cough?

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The reason that a doctor performs this examination is to check for a Varicocele. A Varicocele is a swollen varicose vein that may be in the scrotum and is usually on the left side. The physician checks for a hernia, which is when a portion of the intestine decends into the pubic area, and possibly into the testes. When you cough, your abdomen expands/contracts, therefore moving the intestine if it has descended. The doctor can feel this, and determine whether or not you have a hernia. This question has been answered by a healthcare professional, not an M.D.
Asked in Health, Conditions and Diseases, Infectious Diseases

Is amoebic dysentery a fungus?

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Amoebic dysentery (as the name suggests) is caused by a micro-organism, called an amoeba, which is found in contaminated and stagnant water.
Asked in Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, Vaccinations

How have vaccines changed the world?

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They have prevented millions of deaths and unnecessary suffering, and they have helped to eradicate a few diseases.
Asked in Infectious Diseases, Mosquitoes

What diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes?

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Some diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are: * Dengue fever * malaria * yellow fever * West Nile virus * Eastern Equine Encephalitis In fact, that makes mosquitoes the deadliest living thing on this earth, totaling the most deaths a year. you can get: dengue fever from the aedes mosquito Yellow fever from the culex mosquito malaria from the anopheles West Nile Virus and malaria are diseases spread by mosquitoes. And you can also get Yellow Fever!! Malaria,Dengue Fever,Yellow Fever,Rift Valley Fever,Encephalitis (West Nile Virus,etc.) Malaria and West Nile virus Malaria malaria There are a number of diseases that can be transmitted by mosquito. The big ones in history have been malaria, but in the United States these days the high-profile disease is West Nile Virus. Since the mosquito is a blood-sucker, the mosquito can pick up almost any kind of blood-borne disease and transmit it to another person. Some mosquito borne diseases include Malaria, Ross River virus and Dengue fever. Dengue fever west-nile virus malaria West Nile Virus. It depends on the location, and breed of mosquito. Despite common beliefs, mosquitos do not transmit diseases like HIV or other STDs from person to person. In Africa, Malaria is commonly transmited by mosquitos, but in the United States, West Nile is common. Mosquitoes are a blood-sucking insect, they can become infected when biting an infected animal, bird, or human; they then spread parasites or virus on when they bite another animal (dogs, cats, cows, horses, pigs…), wild and captive birds/fowl (crows, pigeons, ducks, chickens…), or humans. The simple mosquito is one of this worlds most dangerous living creature; they can live and travel about anywhere (especially warmer climates), and they are can spread disease from species to species. Not all mosquitoes bite humans, there are those that are drawn to other species. Mosquitoes can carry and transfer a number of viral and parasitic diseases to Dengue Fever, Malaria, St. Louis Encephalitis, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, West Nile Virus/Encephalitis, and Yellow Fever). Mosquitoes are notorious for spreading heartworm to dogs. The symptoms caused by a viral or parasitic infection that is spread by mosquitoes, depends on the type of infection. For example: A potentially fatal disease 'dengue' (only carried by female mosquitoes).These type of disease carrying mosquitoes can be identified by the black and white zebra-like stripes on their body.Symptoms of this disease are severe headache behind the eyes vomiting , diarrhea, red-spots on the skin and a high fever. These symptoms are noticeable after five to six days after a bite. A mosquito can give you a disease called "malaria". Humans can get Malaria, Ross river Virus, or Dengue fever Malaria. malaria pneumonia Meningitis or brain damage Mosquitoes spread malaria, and a virus known as the triple E virus (EEEV). mad cow ENCEPHALITIS WEST NILE FEVER DENGUE FEVER MALARIA YELLOW FEVER I don't know all of them but Encephalitis, West Nile Fever, Dengue Fever, Malaria, and Yellow fever are carried by mosquitoes. West Nile Virus Mosquitos spread the disease like malaria, filaria and dengue fever. dengue Anopheles albimanus mosquito feeding on a human arm. This mosquito is a vector of malaria and mosquito control is a very effective way of reducing the incidence of malaria. The principal mosquito borne diseases are the viral diseases yellow fever and dengue fever, transmitted mostly by the Aedes aegypti, and malaria carried by the genus Anopheles. Though originally a public health concern, HIV is now thought to be almost impossible for mosquitoes to transmit[citation needed]. Mosquitoes are estimated to transmit disease to more than 700 million people annually in Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and much of Asia with millions of resulting deaths. Methods used to prevent the spread of disease, or to protect individuals in areas where disease is endemic include Vector control aimed at mosquito eradication, disease prevention, using prophylactic drugs and developing vaccines and prevention of mosquito bites, with insecticides, nets and repellents. Since most such diseases are carried by "elderly" females, scientists have suggested focusing on these to avoid the evolution of resistance - Cj adapted from wikipedia Dengue,Malaria,Elephanthasis etc The most common disease that mosquitoes spread is malaria. Although mosquitoes also spread other diseases like fliaria, dengue, brain fever and yellow fever. # five different kinds of Malaria # Yellow Fevour # West Nile Virus I believe it is called west nile malaria Malaria and West Nile virus. malaria
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Infectious Diseases

Can you go swimming with a fungal infection?

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You can go swimming with a fungal infection, However, because the pool attendants are not going to inspect you or your fungal infection before you enter the water it is up to you to get it sorted out before taking part in such activities, go and see your doctor for some treatment, it is very contagious, and it is not very sporting of you to subject the public in general to this condition.
Asked in Cold and Flu, Infectious Diseases, Swine Flu (H1N1/09), Viruses (biological)

Can you get the flu twice in the same season?

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Catching Flu Twice in a Season Yes, you can. But, it would have to be a different strain or type of the influenza-virus than you previously had (if you are otherwise healthy and have a well-functioning immune system). You would need to be exposed to a different flu virus to get it a second time because your body will have created antibodies to destroy that particular flu virus the first time you had it, and a second exposure that soon should not be able to reinfect you for that reason. There is some eventual loss of protection over the long term possible but not within the same season. Even after receiving the flu vaccine you can get the flu if you are exposed to a different type of flu virus than was in the vaccine, if your immune system is not functioning properly, or if you are exposed before the vaccine was able to create the proper antibodies from the vaccination (usually 2 weeks after the vaccination in most adults and longer in children - up to a month) . The flu vaccine is made with the viral particles of the top 3 flu virus strains that are expected to be circulating in that upcoming season for which the vaccine was developed. US CDC scientists determine each year what viruses should be in the following year's vaccine based on what viruses are circulating in Asia, since these will be moving west toward the US during the flu season. There are many strains, if the scientists do not predict the correct ones, you may still become ill despite a vaccination. You CANNOT get the flu from the flu vaccines. The viruses in the vaccines are killed (inactivated) or weakened, so you cannot get the flu from a flu vaccination. You can check out the NIH's website for more info.
Asked in Cold and Flu, Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, Immune System

What remains in the body after an immune battle?

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Your body has different ways to act, depending on the type of pathogen. Many extracellular pathogens get attacked by antibodies, witch stick to the surface of the pathogen and can prevent the uptake of nutrients or from attaching to cells of your body. In many cases these antibodies also facilitate the uptake of pathogens by macrophages, who will digest them. In both cases the pathogen will die and thus be inactivated. The remains can be broken down in your body to serve as nutrients just as any type of food would. Intracelluar pathogens are removed by killing the cells that host them. This happens by inducing cell lysis in these cells through the formation of pores in the cell membrane or interactions with Natural Killer Cells. The host cells will die and the pathogen will not be able to replicate, the celldebris is broken down to its building blocks (amino acides, nucleic acids e.d.) and recycled by the body.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Infectious Diseases

Can a virus cause myalgia for 3 months?

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Several years ago, I developed joint aches and pains for several months following a parvo-virus infection. One of my children (a toddler at the time) had 5th's Disease and my doctor was astute enough to test me for parvo, which is the virus that causes this disease in children. I did feel better eventually, but it took at least 6-9 months I believe.
Asked in Cold and Flu, Medication and Drugs, Infectious Diseases, Antibiotics, Swine Flu (H1N1/09), Tamiflu

Is Tamiflu an antibiotic?

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No. Tamiflu is an antiviral that makes it harder for the flu virus to spread within the body. Antibiotics fight bacteria which would be useless on the flu which is a virus not a bacteria.
Asked in Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Testing, Blood

What is an anti-DNase-B test?

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detects antigens produced by group A strep, and is elevated in most patients with rheumatic fever and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.