This section covers topics of genetics such as variation, pedigrees, Mendelian genetics and mutations.
Asked in Genealogy, Genetics, Adolf Hitler
Who were the Aryans?
The Aryans were historically an ancient people from central Asia around the Caspian Sea, and they had a profound influence on the formation of ancient India and Persia/Iran- in fact, the Iranian name for their own country means "land of the Aryans", and goes back over two thousand years. Because the real Aryans lived in a time before writing was commonplace, we don't know a lot about their early history, except that thousands of years ago a group of them invaded India; later a second group invaded Persia (modern Iran). The Vedas, ancient Hindu holy texts, were written in the language of the Aryans, which is now commonly called "Vedic Sanskrit". However, the problem is that in the late 1800s, certain racist crackpots in France (Arthur de Gobineau) and England (Houston Stewart Chamberlain) began conflating our limited knowledge of the Aryans with Darwinian concepts, and mushed in some occult mumbo jumbo. They came up with the kernel of the idea of a "master race"- that certain people from Europe were ultimately descended from the Aryans, and that these Europeans were inherently better than all other people. It's all nonsense based on inaccurate reading of history. Adolf Hitler and his Nazi stooges latched onto these "theories" and used them as a basis of their ridiculous racist ideology, claiming that Germanic peoples (Germans, Scandinavians, even some French and English) were "Aryan" and thus better than other peoples. They also decided that Jews and other Semitic peoples were inferior and parasitic, so it was ok for "Aryans" to enslave or kill them. There's no scientific or historical basis behind any of it, and it's utter nonsense. Sadly, a lot of people still believe in it anyway.
How rare is black hair and blue eyes?
The occurrence of crossing over those two genes is more rare because they are farther apart on the chromosome than dark hair and dark eyes or light hair and light eyes; dark hair and light eyes are about as uncommon as light hair and dark eyes. Depending on the area of the world, it can be either very common or very uncommon. In some areas, like Ireland, it can be more common because when there are more people with that combination of genes procreating, it is more likely for the child to have dark hair and light eyes.
Asked in Microbiology, Genetics, Blood Types
What is the rarest blood type?
The rarest phenotypic blood type is Type AB negative found in only 0.7% of people worldwide. However, taking into account more than the 8 main blood types and including antigen combinations, something like Rh-null blood is much rarer. An article in Smithsonian magazine tells us that there are nine active donors of that blood type in the world.
Asked in Banking, Biology, Genetics, Biotechnology
What are some benefits of DNA data banks?
Most DNA databanks contain data from non-human organisms like animals, plants, bacteria and viruses. This information is used in basic biological research and medical research. Some specialized DNA databases exist for other purposes Previous answer: They help law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute criminals using genetic evidence gathered from crime scenes. Also, they are used by doctors and hospitals to establish relationships like Paternity test.
Asked in Biology, Botany or Plant Biology, Genetics
What is the main difference between plant and animal cells?
Plants cells have a cell wall over the cell membrane,whereas,animals cells lack cell wall. In plant cells, there is a single large vacuole present in the middle, whereas, in animals cell,there are more than one vacuoles. Plant cells possess plastids, but, animal cells don't. Animal cells have centrioles, whereas, plant cells don't. Plant cells are more square shaped, animal cells are more round Plant cells have chlorophyll for Photosynthesis (make their own food), and animal cells don't
Asked in Genetics, Biochemistry
What is the equation for oxidative phosphorylation?
Asked in Miscellaneous, Biology, Genetics
How is a test cross set up?
Organism to be tested is crossed with a homozygous recessive . If all progeny is similar to tested organism , it is homozygous and if 50% progeny is similar to tested organism , it is heterozygous .Classic Mendelian example is cross of a tall plant to check its genetic make up by crossing with homozygous recessive dwarf plant .
Is a carrier homozygous or heterozygous?
A carrier would have to by heterozygous. Carriers don't express the "carried" allele but have it nevertheless. This means it has to have one allele of each. For example, if a trait has alleles A (dominant) and a (recessive), the heterozygous genotype will be Aa and will display the dominant phenotype (unless the trait is a special/more complex type of expression like incomplete dominance).
Asked in Laboratory Testing, Genetics, Blood Types
Can an O positive woman and O negative man have a healthy baby?
Yes, the blood type does not affect the baby. The information provided does not predict any major incompatibilities between the mother and the child during pregnancy. However, the ABO and the Rh factor are only part of the prenatal care picture. There are many, lesser known, blood groups that could cause HDFN (Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus or Newborn).
Asked in Biology, Genetics, Biochemistry
Why is a buffer needed in gel electrophoresis?
The buffer is the medium through which the current flows. In the electrophoresis chamber, the anode and cathode are separated and the gel is placed between them. In order to close the circuit and generate the voltage which causes the migration, the entire chamber is filled with a conductive buffer. It is actually possible to perform electrophoresis without a buffer; however this requires a specially made electrophoresis chamber. In these chambers the electrodes actually contact the top and bottom of the gel eliminating the need for a conductive buffer to close the circuit. SDS PAGE electrophoresis uses buffer not primarily as a conductor but for holding a desired pH, dissipating heat and providing SDS in excess in the case of denaturing gels. A gel would run without a buffer as the gel itself is a conductor but the currents involved would heat it to the point of decomposition. Also the volume of liquid in a gel does not allow for an adequate pH buffering system. Holding a pH is extremely important for reproducibility especially in native gels as the pH can change the charge on the peptide. It is true some gels do not require buffer but these are rare cases like isoelectric focusing. the primary application of the buffer would be to conduct electricity,to form a closed circuit
Asked in Genetics
Do vitamins affect those who take them?
Every year we spend £300 million on vitamin supplements. Some believe they offer the promise of preventing or even curing some of the world's biggest killers, such as heart disease and cancer. Others claim that taking large doses of some vitamins may in certain cases be harmful. Vitamin C, the most popular of them all Nearly 40 years ago, one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century and double Nobel Prize winner, Linus Pauling, revolutionised the way people thought about vitamins. He claimed that by taking huge doses of vitamin C you could prevent or even cure the common cold. He predicted that if everybody followed his advice, the common cold could even be eradicated. Many scientists dismissed his theory as quackery, but the public loved it and it helped launch a huge industry. But the latest evidence shows the great man was mistaken. Vitamin C can help you once have got a cold, but for most people it does nothing to prevent you from catching one in the first place. Even if large doses of vitamin C do not prevent the common cold, some claim that it can still offer a more profound benefit. It is one of a group of vitamins called anti-oxidants that some believe can prevent illnesses such as cancer, Alzheimer's and heart disease. Too much of a good thing? In 2004, scientists in the United States claimed that people could be missing any of the potential benefits of taking one of the world's most popular anti-oxidant vitamin supplements, vitamin E, because their bodies might not be absorbing it. But our own investigation suggested that the American scientists' conclusion could be mistaken. While most safety experts believe that vitamins C and E can be taken safely even in quite large doses, there is worrying evidence that one form of another common vitamin, vitamin A, could be linked to osteoporosis, a debilitating bone disease. If the theory is right it means that a person's diet, or some supplements that they take every day to improve their health, could actually be slowly and silently weakening their bones.
Asked in Biology, Genetics, Biochemistry
What is biological continuity?
The thread of descent that connects all life - All life comes from life. A succession of parts intimately united. Answer 2 All organisms are produced by their parents , genetic information is transferred from parents to offspring , through DNA via gametes ,this DNA is responsible for genetic continuity .
Asked in Biology, Genetics, Cell Biology (cytology)
What molecule carries instructions for making proteins?
In the nucleus of the cell you have the DNA; the big archive with all the instructions for the cell including the one to make each protein. mRNA carries these instructions out of the cell nucleus to the ribosomes (the protein factories) where tRNA delivers the right amino acids to the ever growing chain to form the right protein as "written" on the mRNA.