Botany or Plant Biology
The study of plant life is known as botany. All questions related to plant sciences such as taxonomy are welcome here.
Asked in Botany or Plant Biology
How does soda or sugar water affect the growth of a plant?
Most types of soda (irrespective of brand name - Sprite, Coke, Fanta, Mountain Dew etc.) contain a few common elements: carbonated water, flavouring, colouring and sugar. Of course there are a differences in tastes, and chemical composition, but the basics are the same. So, what is the story surrounding watering plants with soda or sugar water? Sodas contain a form of glucose (normally corn sugar extract) and sugar water is normally a mixture of water and crystallised sugar (which is again the glucose extracted from sugar cane). This is normally a form of glucose referred to as d-glucose (due to the shape of the molecule). Plants are able to absorb and assimilate and metabolise d-glucose, so the simple friendus would seem like yes, soda and sugar water does help plants grow. In small quantities or dilute concentrations yes; in large or high concentration no, it will eventually kill the plant. In large doses, the sugar changes the water potential in the soil around the plant, preventing water from being absorbed by the the roots (through osmosis). The first signs would be that the plant wilts as it it not able to absorb enough water to sustain itself. In addition high concentrations of sugar in the soil provide a fertile breeding ground for bacteria and fungi, which would take the first opportunity to attack a damaged or injured plant. High amounts of calcium (dissolved by the carbonated water) could also be expected to start precipitating at the surface of the soil. It also obviously depends on the size of the plant and the quantity (and frequency) of soda/ sugar water you are applying. A Similar Result Sugar added to the water given to a plant can help the plant grow faster, bigger, greener and taller, because plants have the process of respiration (the opposite of photosynthesis) which needs glucose, which is sugar, and oxygen to help grow. By giving seeds and young plants sugar water, it helps the plant grow to be greener because it is given a double dose of glucose. However, if you give the plant too much sugar water it will kill the plant because it cannot efficiently absorb water from the soil. I grew tomatoes as an experiment in my science class and I had sugar water as the experiment. One pot had sugar water tomatoes and the other had regular water. In 1 week the sugar water plants had sprouted and were around one inch. The regular plants did not sprout until around the second week. By the end of three months the sugar water plants were around 2 feet tall at least, had buds and were extremely green and healthy. While on the other hand the regular water plants were not a foot tall yet and they had leaves that weren't that green.
Asked in Botany or Plant Biology
Does grass and flowers give off oxygen?
Asked in Music, Botany or Plant Biology
What are the effects of music on plants?
There are many different viewpoints on this. A selection of contributors' thoughts are included below. Answer 1: DOROTHY RETALLACK STUDY Many scientific studies have been done regarding the effects of music on plants. The simple answer is that past studies have suggested hard rock or heavy metal music seems to have a detrimental effect on plant growth. There is a well-known study from the early 1970s, conducted by Dorothy Retallack at the Colorado Woman's College in Denver using the college's three Biotronic Control Chambers. In one series of studies, the tone of F sound was played daily for three hours a day, intermittently in one laboratory, it was played for eight hours a day, constantly, and the control group had no sound introduced. Those plants where the F tone was played intermittingly for 3 hours a day grew twice as large and were twice as healthy as those in a sound-free environment. However, plants in the laboratory where the tone of Fconstantly for 8 hours daily died within two weeks of the experiment's beginning. Dorothy used a growing chamber, a variety of plant species (but the same in each chamber) and made sure the volume was consistent for all forms of music. Different types of music were then utilized in her following experiments. She tried acid rock music by Led Zeppelin, Vanilla Fudge, and Hendrix. It was played to one group of plants and semi-pop music (of the 1970's) to another. The "acid rock music" plants were sickly and small compared to the control group of "semi popular" music (now termed soft rock). The other genres of music she experimented with: were classical music (Debussy), jazz (she use Louis Armstrong among others), and Indian (Ravi Shankar). The plants grew large and healthy, with the plants actually growing towards the radio for each of these three forms of music, just like they bend towards sunlight. Dorothy also experimented with country music (such as Jonny Cash) and found they neither grew toward or away from the speakers and seemed neutral. While Dorothy did have a personal bias and by the end of her research she believed plants could feel and were capable of ESP. She felt perhaps it was the lyrics that the plants didn't like with the acid rock music. It seems the plants like all types of music, except hard, pounding rhythms, but prefer stringed instruments the most. They also didn't like a constant tone played for 8 hours per day, but how many of us do! Effective experiments need to involve the following factors, which Dorothy tried to maintain, but failed to measure the water and soil moisture with an accurate device: the same plant types across the different conditions a variety of species across the different conditions music volume would need to be maintained at a consistent level strict controls on all other external factors, e.g. light, warmth, etc consistency of human interaction across the different conditions Answer 2: MYTHBUSTERS Mythbusters have come up with a different result. Their experiments suggested that heavy metal seems to stimulate growth more than other types of music. The culprit is likely the rapid vibration that encourages activity. Perhaps these results could be pursued by searching the Mythbusters website on Discoverychannel. Answer_3:_SMALL_SCALE_EXPERIMENTS">Answer_3:_SMALL_SCALE_EXPERIMENTS">Answer 3: SMALL SCALE EXPERIMENTS The effect is the same as random noise, i.e. just the physical stress of sound. Music as such has no effect because: 1) Plants are not intelligent. In fact, they don't have a central nervous system. Music can only affect you if you understand it, and plants can't understand anything. 2) Plants have no auditory organs. They can't hear any more than you could hear through your skin if you had no ears. If you look this up on the net, you'll see plenty of small scale experiments with positive results. Unfortunately, these experiments are fatally flawed in several ways. First, they are typically done with just 3 or 4 plants, and with such a small sample size any difference is likely to be from random chance. Second, and perhaps more importantly, the control is silent when it should be random noise with the same frequency spectrum and periodicity as the music. This is the only way to test the effects of music as such, not just the effects of sound. When the experiment is done with a good sample size (thousands of plants) and controlled properly, the results may well be negative. Answer_4:_TRY_EXPERIMENTS_YOURSELF">Answer_4:_TRY_EXPERIMENTS_YOURSELF">Answer 4: TRY EXPERIMENTS YOURSELF "I tried experimenting myself. After 4 week of experimenting, the following were the results. I observed that the one that was in the best condition was the plant that was in the room with classical music. It grew in the range of 9-16 degrees away from the CD Player. The second best plant was the one in the room with no music. It grew from the range of 11-15 degrees away from the CD Player. The one that didn't do so well was the one in the room with rock music. It grew from the range of 33-85 degrees away from the CD Player. " Answer_5:_CLASSICAL_MUSIC">Answer_5:_CLASSICAL_MUSIC">Answer 5: CLASSICAL MUSIC Many people swear by Classical music, which is used in some professional greenhouses to stimulate plant growth. In the book, "The Secret Life of Plants," the results of exposure to various types of music on houseplants is explored, among other fascinating plant experiments. Answer_6:_HUMAN_VS_PLANTS">Answer_6:_HUMAN_VS_PLANTS">Answer 6: HUMAN VS PLANTS The effect of music on plants is drastic. It is found that music stimulates the brain, but it depends what kind of music. For example the high frequency of mechanical waves that run hand in hand with rap and acid rock are damaging to the plant. Some studies have indicated that they do indeed germinate and grow faster and healthier when exposed to Classical music. Soft classic music or sounds of nature, water or birds Answer Myth Busters actually did an experiment to see if it is true that music has an affect on plant growth. They set up several experiments using different types of music and no music. All plants were growing in the same conditions expect for different types of music. Believe it or not, the ones in the greenhouse with heavy metal grew the best. One may take the personal opinion that plants evolved and thrived for years without any form of music (pop, rock, rap or classical), so why would it make a difference now. If there is anything to the theories that abound it would have to do with vibrations/ and or frequency rather than specific music types. However, specific music types certainly emit certain types of vibrations.
Asked in Biology, Botany or Plant Biology, Genetics
What is the main difference between plant and animal cells?
Plants cells have a cell wall over the cell membrane,whereas,animals cells lack cell wall. In plant cells, there is a single large vacuole present in the middle, whereas, in animals cell,there are more than one vacuoles. Plant cells possess plastids, but, animal cells don't. Animal cells have centrioles, whereas, plant cells don't. Plant cells are more square shaped, animal cells are more round Plant cells have chlorophyll for Photosynthesis (make their own food), and animal cells don't
How do you get rid of yellow algae in your pool?
Orange or yellow-colored spots in pool water or on pool surfaces is generally called mustard algae. This can be brushed off, but unless you use a strong algaecide they'll come back. You make sure your alkilinity and pH are correct, add 2 and 1/2 gallons of liquid chlorine, 4 to eight caps full of Yellow Treat, lightly brush the pool, run pump 24 hours,backwash or rinse cartridge, keep stabilized chlorine tablets in your pool weekly and start by checking your T.D.S. level's and see if you have stabilizer in your water. No Mor Problems is also a excellent product that can be used in conjunction with Yellow Treat. use mustard algecide. simple as that. its like 15$ a quart. I use a product called "PHOSfree", by Natural Chemistry. Once you get rid of the Mustard Algae (through various steps), this product is used once a week as a preventative. The way I understand it from my local pool people is that the algae lives off of the phosphates in your pool, Phosfree kills the phosphates, therefore the algae cannot live. Per information on bottle: "Phosfree" is not an algaecide or algaestat and does not kill algae. When added to your skimmer, a thin coating of Phosfree forms on the filter and phosphates are reduced to a very low level as pool water flows through it. Extensive research has proven phosphates are the limiting nutrient (food) for algae growth in lakes and rivers, and this is also true in swimming pools. Natural Chemistry's complete phosphate program results in clear perfect water, no waterline rings, no chemical odors, and phosphates. Normal sanitizer levels will prevent algae growth." I'm sure this sounds like a commercial or that I'am an employee, but I assure you I'am just a very satisfied customer. This is the second summer using this in my pool, and I haven't had any mustard algae. Kim H. Charlotte, NC The last resort to get rid of the algae is to drain your pool and chlorine bath it. To chlorine bath your pool all you do is walk around the inside of the pool while pouring strait chlorine down the plaster or pebble-tec. Make sure that you spend plenty of time pouring the chlorine around the lights and other places that are covered in your pool because algae could very well be hiding behind them. Once you have done this you should be able to just fill you pool back up with fresh water leaving the chlorine in the bottom if you don't have a pump to take it out. Visit This site to learn more about pool cleaning! Brandon D. Chandler, AZ Yellow algae is a result of a lack of chlorine in the pool. Either the pool has had no chlorine added, or the pool has become overstabilized to the point where there is not enough free chlorine to kill the yellow algae. Either way, the solution is relatively simple. For an average sized pool (10,000 to 15,000 gallons), add 5 pound of granular sodium di-chlor shock, as well as an entire bottle of a product known as AlgaTec (made by Easy Care). To prevent any algae from reoccurring, begin using a phosphate remover (such as PhosFree). Ask your pool professional to test your phosphate levels, and reduce them to less than 100ppm. Jody - Ohio I have an inground, vinyl sided, salt generator pool. I have been dealing with mustard algae for close to a month. After doing a lot of research, I have resolved the problem...almost overnight. As others have said, the problem is essentially chlorine levels, but adjusting to a normal level now is not going to solve the problem. Here is what I did to resolve it. I purchased a product from Ace Hardware called Yellowrid. The instructions that I followed are: 1) increase PH to a level of 8. 2) add entire contents of bottle of yellowrid as described - 1 container treats 15,000 gallons. 3) shock the pool (I didn't think this was permitted with a salt generator, but it is). 4) switch the filtration to the main drains only and allow the system to run continuously until the problem is resolved. If you have an automatic cleaner, run this 24 hours as well. 5) 12 hours after the initial shock, shock the pool again. 6) 24 hours after step 5, shock the pool again. The pool will clear up within the first 24 hours (no more sickening green/yellow color). 7) allow the pool to return to normal levels - test the water and make adjustments as necessary. Mustard algae will return in force if you don't get it all. Make sure the levels of chlorine are kept to the optimal for your system. Good luck and happy swimming!
How does cloudy weather affect photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is the process of taking water and light and turning it into energy in the form of sugar. So, if plants don't have enough light, they wont be able to prodce sugar. They still get some light when clouds are around, but not enough for them to be able to create a lot of the product. ********* Light is a limiting factor in photosynthesis during cloudy weather.
Can you revive an adiantium fern?
If it is not totally dessicated and dead, what I would do is get a small bottle (2 oz. or 4 oz.) of a product called superThrive at a local garden center or nursery . Not expensive, maybe $7. u.s. for the smaller size. Depending on the size of the fern, put it in a container/bucket and put enough water in the bucket to cover the roots and some of the foliage. If necessary, put a weight of some kind on top of the plant to hold it down in the water. Then put 1/2 teaspoon of superThrive in the water, and mix it thoroughly. (if you like, you can put the superThrive in the water first, then apply to the fern). A small amount, a drop or two only, of a dish soap like Dawn will help the water and the superThrive get into the plant's leaves and roots. Let it soak for 24-48 hours, then plant it and keep it in a cool area, no direct sunlight but bright light. If it is going to survive, you will see new leaves emerging from the base within a month or so, perhaps sooner. When you do, carefully cut out all old, dead leaves down to the base. Depending on the condition of the fern to begin with, this can be done before the treatment is applied. superThrive is a plant medicine-enhancer-invigorator, not a fertilizer. Do not fertilize this plant or any plant under stress. Only after it is showing new growth, would I apply a mild (1/2 strength) dose of fertilizer along with another application of superThrive in the water for the plant, on the leaves and the roots too. I have saved many plants, large and small, using this technique. Good luck! :o)
Asked in Animal Life, Botany or Plant Biology
What if plants could walk?
well they don't so why worry about it? that's like asking what if pigs could fly!? Answer 2: I guess it depends on what you mean by "walk." To me walking implies that they have legs. Snails don't have legs, so they glide rather than walk. In order for a plant to have legs, it would have to have the genetics that underpin everything a leg is, and everything that makes it more. Which is fine, because plants can have huge genomes. More practically, if plants could literally walk, I would expect that they wouldn't need to put so much effort into creating flowers and complex fruits. That would be a problem for humans, because all we would have to eat is leaves, mushrooms, microscopic organisms, algae, and animals. And if you had to chase a lettuce plant around just for a salad, that would be a real pain. I guess eating seaweed would become more popular. ****** The ecosystem of a place would be changing every now and then
What happens because of photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is source of all food which is used by consumers . Initial product of photosynthesis are triose which are converted to hexoses , sucrose , starch and cellulose . All these carbohydrates are direct source of food and energy for animals and Fungi . No animal life would be possible without photosynthesis . Oxygen is by product of photosynthesis . It is utilized by all aerobic organisms during respiration .
Asked in Biology, Botany or Plant Biology, Biochemistry
What are the final products of aerobic respiration in plants and animals?
Asked in Botany or Plant Biology
What is aerial part of plant?
Asked in Botany or Plant Biology
What is the difference between stem and root?
The stem of a plant or flower is the green straw-like stem under the actual flower. There may be leaves sticking out of the stem. The roots are underground and need to suck the water out of the soil. The stem in plants support leaves and have conjoint and concentric vascular bundles whereas the roots mostly remain underground for absorption and anchorage and have primary radial vascular bundles.
Asked in Botany or Plant Biology, Photosynthesis
What organelles contain chlorophyll and other pigments involved in photosynthesis?
What are the similarities and differences of rose and fortune plant?
What is the largest living organism by mass?
The largest living organism, by mass and also by length, is found among the Giant Sequoia Red Wood trees of California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, U.S.A. Several "groves" of these trees can be found along the western slope of the Sierra's within California. The largest diameter tree ever found was 35 ft. in diameter (not circumference, 'diameter,' measuring across the width of the trunk). These trees exceed 350 ft tall. Some have been found to exceed 3000 years old. The Coast Redwoods of California's coastal mountain range would be the source for the second largest living organism type. Some say that the largest organism is a specific fungus growing in Oregon, but it cannot be proven that this is, or is not a "colony" of may fungi, rather than a single organism. Some say the Great Barrier Reef is the largest organism but, once again, this is a very large cluster of many organisms, not a single organism. The Male African elephants are the largest living animals on land, while blue whales are the largest animals in the sea.