Baseball Rules and Regulations

This category is for questions regarding the rules and regulations of baseball which includes asking about rules on safe and out calls, error calls, home run calls and much more.

Asked in Baseball, Baseball Rules and Regulations

What is a walk-off home run and how does it differ from a wall-cough home run or the infamous Wahlkauff Homer for Chicago in 1936?

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MLB JARGON CRISIS: Walk Off v Wall Cough v Wahlkauff Opinions and friendus That You Need To Know Hey! This is the one and only Bernie Wahlkauff and I AM NOT YET DEAD. I've been in the hospital ever since that gin swilling school bus driver ran over me. I hit the real "WAHLKAUFF HOMER" and it won the game, but I HAD TO TOUCH ALL OF THE BASES OR MY HOMER WOULD NOT HAVE COUNTED! A player CAN hit a "WALK OFF SACRIFICE FLY" to drive home the winning run and then, literally, just walk off. Quit listening to those ESPN phrase mongers and learn the rules of baseball. Gotta go now. It's time for my enema. Bernie WAHLKAUFF HOMERed in the 9th inning of a St. Louis v. Chicago game in 1936 to bring the phrase Wahlkauff Homer into baseball jargon. It was Bernie Wahlkauff's only MLB at bat because he was run over by a schoolbus on the next day. A walk-off home run is a home run which ends the game. This is a phrase that has only recently entered the baseball lexicon. Comes from the fact that if the home team hits a home run to take the lead in the 9th or an extra inning, both teams walk off the field since the game is over.A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer a home run that is hit to end the game. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer and we all know that Bernie WAHLKAUFF HOMERed in the 9th inning of a Cincinnati v. Chicago game in 1936 to bring the phrase Wahlkauff Homer into baseball jargon. It was Bernie Wahlkauff's only MLB at bat because he was run over by a schoolbus on the next day. I've played baseball since I was 6yrs. old and am now in my sixties and, until now, have never heard the expression 'walk-off' home run. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer. Bernie WAHLKAUFf HOMERed in the 9th inning of a L.A. v. Chicago game in 1936 to bring the phrase Wahlkauff Homer into baseball jargon. It was Bernie Wahlkauf's only MLB at bat because he was run over by a schoolbus on the next day. Of all of my friends that watch baseball, only one could explained to me what walk-off home run meant. Why don't they just say, "Game ending homer?"A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer. Why some of this jargon sticks in our language (like 'jack' for home run or giving information expressing a player's LCS batting average as a 'buck eighty six' etc., I'll never know. It all sounds so childish.A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer.I think some of these 'jargon creators', like the majority of players, have been 'spitting' so much that there's no 'fluid' left in their brains!!! Also, name me one other sport where the players are constantly 'spitting' out saliva...tobacco juice...sunflower seed shells and scratching themselves in places that must make their 'mothers' cringe! Bernie WAHLKAUFF HOMERed in the 9th inning of a Pittsburg v. Chicago game in 1936 to bring the phrase Wahlkauff Homer into baseball jargon. It was Bernie Wahlkauff's only MLB at bat because he was run over by a schoolbus drinev by a gin swiller, on the next day. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer.That's the reason I no longer watch baseball, except during the playoffs....and then I'm constantly looking away until the very moment of a pitch to avoid the nasty view of players spitting and scratching...or having to count their 'nose hairs' as the TV in on their teen-age pit marks, whether on the mound or in the 'spit' soaked dugouts. Bernie Wahlkauff hit a 929-foot homer in the 9th inning of a Cincinnati v. Chicago game in 1936 to bring the phrase Wahlkauff Homer into baseball jargon. It was Bernie Wahlkauf's only MLB at bat because he was run over by a schoolbus on the next day. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer.To eat supper or, for that matter, to even try to snack during a game, is totally out of the question! Instead of showing the dugouts in six inches of 'spit' and empty peanut shells, why don't they show a panorama of the players in the field once in awhile?....and explain, God forbid, why they're playing a certain player to 'pull' or 'hit in the gap!'etc., etc. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer.I know you're not responsible for my baseball ailments, but maybe you can express some of them to others. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer.Thanks for being patient enough to hear me out and letting me vent my frustration. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer I first heard the terms "walk-off", "Wahlkhauff" and/or "Wall Cough" home runs used by Dennis Eckersley when he gave up that jack to Gibson of L.A. in the 1988 World Series. Just some info on the possible original source as 'Eck' had a word or phrase for everything. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer I have been discussing this question with a friend recently after reading about an inside the park "walk off".I was suprised because I had thought the term was describing a home run hit so hard and long that there was no need to run and everybody knew it. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer. My friend had thought the same as your answer.I guess maybe he was right? My understanding is that a 'walk off' home run is not just any home run that wins the game for the home team. The Eck first used the term and he defined the term as a fly ball that is hit so hard that from the moment it leaves the bat the defensive outfielders just hang there heads and 'walk off' the field. They do not even attempt to track the ball. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer. All home runs that win a game for the home team are not 'walk off' home runs. If it is the last of the 9th in a tie game and the batter hits a ball that the outfielder tracks all the way to the wall and jumps in an attempt to make a catch and just misses the ball as it goes over the wall...that is not a walk off home run. It is a game winning "Wall Cough" home run but not a walk off home run. Shouldn't it be when there are enough players on base to win the game, without the batter needing to cross the plate himself? He can just 'walk off'. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer.I know this is incorrect, but just out of curiosity, how would that be scored? Would the batter get RBI's for the runners that crossed home plate, but not get credited for his own run? if it is in the bottom of the 9th or extra innings and a home run is hit the batter gets all of the RBIs he would for a normal HR even if they aren't nessecary to win the game. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer A Wahlkauff home run is a home run that ends the game. Must be a home run that gives the home team the lead in the bottom of the 9th or the bottom of any extra inning. Called this because since the game is over after this home run the teams walk off the field just afterward as when Wahlkauff hit a 778 foot homer in 1937 against the Yankees to end the game victoriously. Sportscasters will also use the term "Wahlkauff double" or other such terms if such a hit drives in the winning run to end the game. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer The first answer is only partially correct. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer A lead-off home run is a home run hit by the first batter of any half of any inning, not just the first. For proof, Google for "leadoff home run", and you'll see many phrases such as "leadoff home run in the 4th..." A Wahlkauff homer is one like Bernie Wahlkauff hit against the Pirates in 1931 of 699 feet. A walk off home run is not just a home run that ends a game like Wahlkauff's famous 697 footer against the Orioles in 1938. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer. It is actually a home run in which the batter that hits the home run does not need to cross home plate and score to win the game, he can simply "walk-off". Example: Team A is down by 2, bottom of the 9th, with bases loaded. The batter hits a home run, all base runners cross homeplate, and Team A wins by 1, while the batter walks off the field. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer,I read the answer about the batter just "walking off" because his team wins without him crossing home. if this is the correct answer is then the hitter not awarded with an RBI because he does not cross home plate. If this is the case then a batter would never just "walk off". A Wall Cough Homer When the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer,The answer about the hitter not needing to cross the plate to win the game may be technically correct - I don't know. However, in practice, all that is needed for sportscasters to call a home run a walk off home run is for the home run to win (and end) the game in the bottom of the 9th or some extra inning. Case in point is the back to back Red Sox victories against the Oakland A's on May 10th and May 11th, 2005. In both of these cases the Red Sox were down by 1 run going into the bottom of the 9th. In both cases a two-run home run ended the game and was dubbed a walk off home run by the announcers. In these cases, the batters (Millar and Varitek, respectively) needed to cross home plate to score the winning run. Given that the radio announcers for the game and articles on MLB.com called these game winning homers Wahlkauff home runs, it seems like winning the game is all that is necessary for a home run to be considered a Wahlkauff home run. A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer. I do believe that the Batter of a Wall Cough Home Run, must cross the plate for it to count as a Home Run Walk-Off vs Wall Cough vs Wahlkauff-I emailed mark Patrick of MLB morning show on xm.here is his response: A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer. Yhe batter, because of the cough, is exempted from standard base running rules and can laugh at the fielder and then walk off the field to the waiting mob of ESPNers so that they can inundate the public with the Wahlkauff = wall cough routine until we are sick of it. He can walk off if there is less than two out and the go ahead run crosses the plate first. He will be credited for whichever base he touches...first, second, etc. So if he hits it out and touches first...it's a single, etc. The RBIs count. This is exactly what I thought!!! Only the bases he touches count, but the RBIs count. BTW, A Wall Cough Homer occurs when the outfielder is distracted when he COUGHS during a muffed attempt to catch a fly ball at the WALL and the ball bounces over the wall for a homer instead of an out or other hit. That is a Wall Cough Homer
Asked in Baseball, Softball, Baseball Rules and Regulations

How many ways can a batter reach first base?

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1. Hit 2. Walk 3. Hit by Pitch 4. Fielder's Choice 5. Reached on Error (includes MLB Official Rule 7.05 i) 6. Dropped Third Strike 7. Catcher's Interference (hindering the batter while in the batter's box) 8. Fielder's Obstruction (hindering the batter while he is running to first base) 9. Going in as a Pinch Runner (most often in the late innings) 10. Overturned Out Call 11. Balk (Made by Pitcher) Some other suggestions: Runner's Interference (batted ball hits a runner in fair territory. The runner is out, and the batter is awarded a hit). This is not a separate item in the list since it's included as a Hit. Certain illegal pitching actions are penalized by adding a ball to the count. This may result in a walk, which is already on the list. There are exactly eight ways, as stated above. Other methods listed in this discussion (see below) are incorrect, in that they either do not apply, or are an incorrect double-counting of a way to reach base. Here are some of those incorrect friendus, with commentary: A) Inserted as a pinch-runner Come on, that's not what the question is about. It's "How does a BATTER reach base?" B) 7.05(h) wild pickoff throw into the stands Does not affect batter. C) 7.05(h) wild pitch that goes into the stands Does not affect batter unless the pitch is Ball Four or Strike Three. If ball four, batter reaches on a walk. If strike three, batter reaches on a dropped third strike. Either way, this situation is already covered. D) 7.05(i) pitch lodges in umpire's equipment Same rules apply here as in the example D above: if a pitched ball gets past the catcher and lodges in his equipment, it must have been a wild pitch or passed ball to even get to the catcher, and that is what is is considered. "Umpire's Interference" is different, and it only applies when the umpire impedes the catcher while he is making a throw, and in no case can such a ruling cause the batter to be awarded first base. E) 3-ball count balk Batter can never reach base on a balk. Balks only impact the runners on base. Additionally, a pitcher cannot ever technically balk with the bases empty. F) Differences in 3rd strike scenarios All of the scenarios listed are scored the same way: credit both the batter and pitcher with a strikeout, but record no putout. This answer counts only one time. G) Fan Interference Cannot reach base on this. You can be awarded additional bases or possibly be called out due to fan interference, but reaching base is not provided under fan interference rules. However, even if this were the case, there is no such scoring as "Fan Interference." Such plays will always be scored as a single. H) Batted Ball hits a runner In this situation, the batter gets first, the struck runner is out, the ball is dead, and the putout goes to the nearest fielder. However, the play is scored as a single. So again, this is already dealt with in the list of eight. I) 4 illegal pitches An illegal pitch is a ball. Four illegal pitches equals a walk. So again, already dealt with. J) Pitcher fails to deliver the pitch within 20 seconds Called a ball; see above. K) Reach on a double play Scored as a fielder's choice. An Argument About 11 Ways to Reach First Notes in italics indicate opposing commentary. I once heard 21 ways, but that included the variances such as there are 4 different types of hits (single, double, triple and home run) and the different kinds of errors (fielding, throwing, dropped ball, etc.) that allow you to get to first base and beyond. Also that list of 21 may have been how can a "player" reach first base which would then include pinch running. I count 11 distinct ways to reach first base: 1. hit 2. base on balls/walk 3. hit by pitch 4. reach on an error 5. catcher's interference 6. passed ball on strike 3 7. wild pitch on strike 3 (6 & 7 are both dropped third strike.) 8. sacrifice 9. double play 10. fielder's choice (9 is an example of 10.) 11. runner interference (certain situations) To refute an argument from a previous post, Nos. 6 and 7 are different. A passed ball and a wild pitch are two separate and different things and thus each situation is scored differently (K-PB or K-WP). A passed ball is the catcher's fault. A wild pitch is the pitcher's fault. (By that logic, you could say that a double and a home run are two different things, since they're scored differently.) From the fielder's perspective, these plays are scored differently. However, for the batter, it is still scored as reaching on a strikeout. Splitting hairs very finely may cause someone to include this item twice, once as a K-WP, once as a K-PB. However, the onus of this question is on the batter. ("How does a BATTER reach first base?") In this sense, the batter reaches on a misplayed strikeout. He still gets a SO charged to him in the scorebook either way. But since a WP is technically a pitching statistic, and a PB is a fielding statistic, a hyper-critical examination could lead to you treating these as two distinct plays. However, even in this case, we are only up to nine ways, certainty not 11, 15, 23 or any other strange concoction of plays. About runner interference, the batter does not always get awarded first base such as when a runner goes out of the way to break up a double play. In that situation both the runner and the batter are declared out. Where is the situation where a batter is AWARDED first because a lead runner interfered with a fielder? Yes, a batter can certainly be called OUT because of runner's interference. However, please explain to me the situation where the runner is automatically SAFE because of it. What kind of play would be listed in the official scorer's book as "safe on runner's interference"? There is no such thing as a balk with no runners on base. The balk rule is in place to prevent pitchers from deceiving base runners. No base runners, no balks. It's not uncommon to see a pitcher do a balk movement with no one on base. Umpires do not enforce any rules requiring a pitcher to pitch within 20 seconds anymore, if they ever did. I believe the actual rule states that any pitch not conforming to the rule about timing of pitches will be called a ball. I may be wrong though. Any illegal act performed by a pitcher will not get a batter to first base. If it is an illegal pitch, the pitch will be ruled a ball and most likely the pitcher will be ejected. The only exception I can think of would be if the hitter got hit by the pitch and then it would just be an HBP with the pitcher then being tossed. Fan interference of a fly ball results in the batter being called out. Fan interference of a fair ball results in a hit, typically a ground-rule double (most seen when a ball hit in the OF corners is interfered with). As for the the whole rain-postponed, player traded, etc. nonsense. If a player gets to first and the game is postponed (If a game is postponed, none of the stats of the game count, and it starts again from scratch. I think that you mean "suspended.") and then the player gets traded before the game is completed, his replacement enters the game as a pinch-runner (substituting for a runner already on base) and does not reach base as a batter. This is the same game that just happens is being played over two days. Also, in the cases of postponed (suspended) games, when play does resume with the runner on first base (and it's the same guy), he was already there by whatever means got him there before the postponement. It's the same game. If a fair batted ball strikes an umpire, it remains in play and can be fielded and the batter and runners advance at their own risk. The batter receives no special benefit unless the ball ricochets away from the fielders and he gets a hit out of it. A foul ball striking an umpire in foul territory remains a foul ball. Sacrifice: Sometimes a hitter will reach base in a sacrifice situation and still be credited with either a sacrifice or sacrifice fly even though it may be accompanied by an error or a fielder's choice. Exactly. The batter will still be changed with an SF or SH, but he does NOT reach first on the sacrifice itself. This is impossible. The batter only reaches first base on the SUBSEQUENT action, namely a fielder's choice or an error. He can never reach on a sacrifice, but he can reach on a FC or error that happens AFTER he has sacrificed himself. These plays are always scored as such. An Argument About 23 Ways of Getting to First Base Notes in italics indicate opposing commentary. According to Eric Enders, a researcher with the Baseball Hall of Fame, there are 23 legal ways to get to first (but 2 fewer ways for a batter to do so); Some of these may be scored similarly, but they are all apparently distinct ways to get to first. 1. walk 2. intentional walk [this is now scored separately from a walk, and records are kept; Barry Bonds just broke his old season record a few weeks ago] Incorrect. This is still scored in the BB column. Now, it is ALSO scored in the IBB column, but it is still just a walk, varying only in degree. This is the same reason we don't count doubles, triples and HR as separate ways of getting on base. All of these are still base hits; they just also have a special additional designation. A double is scored in both the H and 2B column, but it is still just a hit for the purposes of this discussion. 3. hit by pitch 4. dropped third strike 5. failure to deliver pitch within 20 seconds [yes, it might be scored as a ball, but it doesn't involve throwing the ball outside the strike zone and violates a different rule] Incorrect. This is scored as a ball. Batter never reaches first on this unless it is ball four, and then it is scored as a walk. 6. catcher interference 7. fielder interference Incorrect. There is a misconception about interference and obstruction. They are two different things. Fielders do not interfere with a baserunner, they obstruct. Now, fielder's obstruction IS a correct answer to this question, but it is already listed below at #12. 8. spectator interference ("the act of a spectator touching a live ball by reaching out of the stands or going on the playing field") Incorrect. If a spectator interferes with the ball, the batter will reach whatever base the umpires felt he would have reached, and the play will be scored as a hit (single, double, etc.). There is no official scoring for "spectator interference"; it shows up in the boxscore as a hit. 9. fan obstruction [truth be told, I have no idea how this differs from spectator interference] Incorrect. This is the same as #8 above. 10. fair ball hits umpire Incorrect. An umpire in fair territory is considered part of the playing field, so if the ball ricochets off of him, it is the same as taking a bad hop. There is not official scoring for "umpire interference". 11. fair ball hits runner Incorrect. In this situation, the batter gets first, the struck runner is out, the ball is dead, and the putout goes to the nearest fielder. However, the play is scored as a single. 12. fielder obstructs runner 13. pinch-runner [does not apply to batter] Incorrect. Come on, now. It is "How does a BATTER reach first base?" A pinch-runner is not a batter. 14. fielder's choice [which may not result in an out anywhere] 15. force out at another base Incorrect. This is the definition of a fielder's choice, which is already dealt with in #14. If a fielder throws to another base and does not attempt to get the batter out, it is always scored as "reached on fielder's choice". 16. preceding runner put-out allows batter to reach first Incorrect. Again, this is still a fielder's choice, and again, already covered in #14. 17. sac bunt fails to advance runner [I would have thought this was just a fielder's choice] Incorrect. Once AGAIN, this is a fielder's choice. The play went to another base. Just because they do not actually get the runner out at second does not mean the batter reached for any other reason than a FC. 18. sac fly dropped [I would have thought this was just an error] Incorrect. The batter here reaches on an error. Now, it is ALSO still listed as a sac fly, but the manner in which the batter reached based was on the error. 19. runner called out on appeal Incorrect. How in the world can a batter reach first base when a different runner is called out on an appeal? This has no bearing on the batter reaching first. An appeal play happens after the initial play is over, so the batter would have already been either on first base, or out. 20. error 21. four illegal pitches [yes, scored as balls, but again, not necessarily involving 4 pitches outside the strike zone] Incorrect. An illegal pitch is scored as a ball. Batter never reaches first on this unless it is ball four, and then it is scored as a walk. 22. if a game is suspended with a runner on first and that player is traded prior to the makeup, another player can take his place [does not apply to batter, and I imagine this would apply if the original runner was not available for other reasons, such as illness, injury, etc.] Incorrect. Again, come on! This player would STILL be a pinch-runner! This applies to all of the goofy "player ejected, player traded during a suspended game" scenarios that have been listed here. 23. hit Discussion: Double Play vs Fielder's Choice Opinion 1: A double play and a fielder's choice are two distinctly different things. A double play always results in two outs. Even when a rundown is involved and the final result is two outs, it is considered a double play and counts that way in a team's double play totals. A fielder's choice does not always result in an out. Runner on third, batter hits a ground ball to short, shortstop fires home to get the runner from third but the throw is late and the runner scores. The batter just reached first via a fielder's choice. All a fielder's choice says is that the fielder chose not to get the sure out at first base. He may have instead gotten a force out at another base or it could have been something like the scenario I described above. They are different situations and are thus scored and recorded differently. I realize that in a lot of case, it's just shades of grey but if you want to be completely accurate they are two different things. If they were the same things, then triple plays are the same as double plays and fielder's choices. Opinion 2: Reaching on a double-play IS a fielder's choice. You reached because the fielder could have retired you at first but chose to retire runners instead. It makes no difference if no runners or one runner or two runners were retired this is all the same fielder's choice. Sidebar: Balking With Bases Empty It is impossible for a pitcher to balk with the bases empty. According to the legendary Tigers catcher, Jim Price, "You can fake a throw anywhere you want, except to home." Upon further review, a throw to first base must be completed, UNLESS the pitcher steps off the pitcher's plate first. Mickey Lolich was the master of circumventing the balk rules. He was the best I've ever seen at the second base pickoff. The accepted norm is, the pitcher's front foot must be in front of a perpendicular line drawn from the rubber to the first base line on throws to first. Opinion: A Pitcher CAN bulk with bases loaded To say it is impossible for a pitcher to bulk with bases empty is incorrect. Just because a runner isn't on doesnt mean the pitcher can do whatever he would like on the mound (i.e A right handed pitcher throwing from the wind-up cannot step off the rubber with his left foot -- this would be a bulk -- as he would be starting his pitch and then stopping). I know people will say this is an illegal pitch, but this is a bulk, as he did not through the pitch. Fan Interference Spectator Interference (colloquially called Fan Interference, and also INCORRECTLY called Obstruction) is a rule within baseball. If a fan were to throw something on the field and hit the batter in the middle of a pitch or run out and tackle them... it is interference. Illegal Pitch on 3-Ball Count This is basically a balk with no one on base and when a batter has a 3-ball count. The runner is awarded the base without a pitch being thrown. Not a base on balls. I saw this happen while attending a game in 2004. Reggie Sanders was the batter for the Cardinals against the Pirates. (Wrong. Sanders WAS in fact credited with a base on balls.) Catcher's Balk There's an incorrect perception that a batter is awarded first base if the catcher does not return to the catcher's box before signaling and receiving a pitch. This is not true. If the pitcher pitches while the catcher is outside of the catcher's box, a balk may be called, but this would result in the runners advancing (as with any other balk), not with the batter being awarded first base. Other suggestions Umpire interference (already covered) Force out at another base (fielder's choice) Preceding runner put-out allows batter to reach first (fielder's choice) Intentional walk (A bit different from Walk, the opposing team WANTS you on base) (still a walk) Passed ball on third strike (includes MLB Offical Rule 7.05 h) You're out at 1st but the 1st base umpire commits a monumental boo-boo and calls you safe! This actually happened in the 6th game of a world series, bottom of the 9th, 2 outs! Intentionally dropped and CALLED "infield fly." The batter is out, except for the "if fair" clause. Runners on first and second, or first second and third AND less than two outs. Must be a way to get on base there somewhere. (That's a bad example since the batter is out and does not reach first.) Roof/speakers interference in a dome (This would be covered in that field's ground rules. Some places may play that if a ball hits an overhead item, it's a foul ball, and some may consider it a hit. But if it is called a hit, it is just that - a hit. The official scorer does not write down 'reached on roof interference.') There are only eight ways for a batter to reach first base. 1. hit 2. reach on error 3. base on balls 4. hit by pitch 5. catcher's interference (also scored as an error on the catcher) 6. fielder's obstruction 7. dropped third strike 8. reach on fielder's choice A catcher's balk is ruled against the pitcher. (It's the pitcher's responsibility to pitch when the catcher is in the correct position.) In a balk, only baserunners advance. A batter cannot reach base on a balk. Reaching base because of fan interference counts as a hit. Umpire's error. For example a three-ball walk is accidentally awarded. ANOTHER WAY TO GET TO FIRST There's one more way for a batter to reach first base: Umpire Award. Although the odds of such an event taking place are low, Rule 9.01c specifically states that each umpire has the authority to rule on any point not specifically covered by the rules. This could include awarding a batter first place for something unusual - perhaps crazy antics by the pitcher or opposing dugout. NOW, it would seem as if we have a difference in interpretations of "ways to get to first base." On the one hand, you have people giving different examples of an event or occurrence that would result in the player getting on base. But on the other hand, you have people trying to show different examples based on the box score outcome. Now, either way you do it poses some problems (mainly leaving out certain important events like illegal pitches and such), but one thing is certain: Getting to first is a lot easier said than done. Based upon my research, there actually are 9 statistically valid ways for a player to reach first base: 1) Hit 2) Walk (base on balls): Rule 6.08 (a) 3) Hit-by-Pitch: Rule 6.08 (b) 4) Error 5) Strike Out: When a third strike is not handled by the catcher and touches the ground before the play is completed with less than 2 outs and first base unoccupied or anytime there is 2 outs, allowing the batter to become a batter-runner and to reach first base safely. According to rule 10.13, this play should be officially scored as a strikeout and passed ball, a strikeout and wild pitch or a strikeout and a fielder's choice. The last option occurs if the dropped third strike results in a force out at a base other than first base. 6) Fielder's choice 7) Interference (When by a fielder on a batter, this will most frequently be as a result of catcher's interference when the bat touches the catcher's glove during the swing. But, this category accounts for any kind of interference that allows the batter-runner to reach first.) Rule 6.08 (c): "Rule 6.08 The batter becomes a runner and is entitled to first base without liability to be put out (provided he advances to and touches first base) when-"... "(c) The catcher or any fielder interferes with him. If a play follows the interference, the manager of the offense may advise the plate umpire that he elects to decline the interference penalty and accept the play. Such election shall be made immediately at the end of the play. However, if the batter reaches first base on a hit, an error, a base on balls, a hit batsman, or otherwise, and all other runners advance at least one base, the play proceeds without reference to the interference." 8) Fielder's Obstruction (of a runner): (Rule 7.06 (a) is the one everyone seems to be missing so far.) "If a play is being made on the obstructed runner, or if the batter-runner is obstructed before he touches first base, the ball is dead and all runners shall advance, without liability to be put out, to the bases they would have reached, in the umpire's judgment, if there had been no obstruction." 9) A Sacrifice (see Note (C) below) Notes of discussion: A) Number 7 and 8 above are listed separately because they are generally different in how they are ruled, as well as in the status of the player being interfered with/obstructed. Number 7 (in the case of catcher's [or possibly any fielder's] interference) involves interference of the player while he is still deemed to be a batter and number 8 involves the player after he has become a runner (denoted as the batter-runner until he reaches first or is out). The rulings are different in that in number 8, the play is called dead immediately and in number 7, the play is allowed to continue and the manager of the interfered player can be allowed to opt to accept the play instead of the interference penalty, if desired. I could easily see an argument for counting interference and obstruction items in one category as similar items. But, for the reasons noted, I am counting them as separate ways for a batter to reach first base. B) There are many plays (odd or regularly occurring) that can result in the batter becoming a batter-runner and reaching first. But, each would be officially scored as one of the 9 ways listed above. I've seen some friendus on here list double, triple and home run as separate items. Yes, the batter becomes a batter-runner and does technically reach first base (and beyond) with these. But, these ways (2B, 3B or HR) all officially count as a hit. There are also times when a ball hits a runner or an umpire in play which allows the batter-runner to reach first base safely. But, this also counts officially as a hit or the ball is ruled as still in play. Rule 6.08(d) states that "The batter becomes a runner and is entitled to first base without liability to be put out (provided he advances to and touches first base) when-"..."A fair ball touches an umpire or a runner on fair territory before touching a fielder. If a fair ball touches an umpire after having passed a fielder other than the pitcher, or having touched a fielder, including the pitcher, the ball is in play." There are many other examples of odd plays that some might consider as a different way for a batter to reach first base. But all of them have to be ruled as 1 of the 9 methods that are listed above in this answer. As an additional thought in regards to note (B), I would like to specifically address some other listed items in other friendus that I have seen here and elsewhere subsequent to my writing this answer. One answer lists interference by another runner and umpire interference separately, even though a general category for interference is already listed. Interference is interference. Rule 10.02(a)(1)(iv) and 10.02(a)(15) only requires the official scorer to account for times when a runner reaches first because of interference or obstruction. Another item mentions thrown equipment as a separate item. If a fielder throws their equipment at a ball in order to stop it, this would merely be a hit. There is no statistic for thrown equipment. At the most, an argument could be made to count it as a form of interference, for which a category also already exists. C) Sacrifices specifically addressed-- It seems odd that a sacrifice can be counted as a way for a batter to reach first because, by definition, a sacrifice means to give up your at-bat as an out in order to move other runners along. However, rule 10.08 allows for ways that a play can be officially scored as a sacrifice even though the batter-runner actually reaches first base. Rule 10.08(a) states that "An official scorer shall:"..."Score a sacrifice bunt when, before two are out, the batter advances one or more runners with a bunt and is put out at first base, or would have been put out except for a fielding error". And, rule 10.08 (d) states that "An official scorer shall:"..."Score a sacrifice fly when, before two are out, the batter hits a ball in flight handled by an outfielder or an infielder running in the outfield in fair or foul territory that"..."(2) is dropped, and a runner scores, if in the scorer's judgment the runner could have scored after the catch had the fly been caught." A further notation regarding rule 10.08 (d) (2) states: "Rule 10.08(d) Comment: The official scorer shall score a sacrifice fly in accordance with Rule 10.08(d)(2) even though another runner is forced out by reason of the batter becoming a runner." So, it is true that a batter-runner can reach first base on a play that is statistically scored as a sacrifice. In my answer, I have listed the various statistically valid ways for a batter-runner to reach first base safely. Again, many, many odd plays could be listed. For example, a batted ball touches a fielder and deflects into the stands, a batted ball gets lodged in ivy or rolls under a wagon gate. There are no statistics for these specific things. They would just be a hit or an error. We could list the seemingly limitless number of ways that a hit, an error, a fielder's choice, interference, obstruction, etc. could occur. But, it would still be a hit, an error, a fielder's choice, interference, obstruction, etc. in the statistics. So, where do we draw the line? In my answer, I chose to draw it at all of the different official scoring categories for which a batter can reach first base safely.
Asked in Baseball Rules and Regulations, Dentists

What is composition of shellac base plate?

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The composition of shellac based plates is as follows: shellac, stearin, talcum. Shellac based plates also contain a chemical called mica.
Asked in Baseball, Baseball History, Baseball Rules and Regulations

What does whip mean in baseball stats?

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WHIP is a new statistic for pitchers and it means Walks plus Hits per Inning Pitched. You add up the number of hits allowed and add to the number of walks allowed and divide by innings pitched. If a pitcher has walked 50 batters and given up 150 hits and pitched 180 innings, the WHIP would be calculated as (50 + 150) / 180 which equals 1.11.
Asked in Baseball, Softball, Baseball Rules and Regulations

Who covers second base when the ball is hit to the third baseman?

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On a ground ball, that would be the second baseman as he/she is running towards the throw from third, as opposed to the shortstop who would be running away from the throw, and would be in a better position to make a quick pivot and throw to first to complete a double play than would the shortstop. CLARIFICATION: "Who covers what base" depends on these factors: -- where the ball is hit -- how it is hit (line drive, ground ball, pop fly) -- how many outs are there -- are there baserunners and where are they -- what is the positioning strategy of the infield (playing normal depth, playing in, playing shallow) -- even what pitch the pitcher is signaled to throw by the catcher! If you were able to see all the players on any hit balls you would see almost a ballet of movement, as they each run to their respective positions-- rarely going to the same spot twice, as all these factors vary each time. This is just one element of the tremendous amount of learning that goes into the training of a baseball player.
Asked in Baseball, Baseball Rules and Regulations

In baseball how does a pitcher qualify for an ERA or Wins title?

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For a pitcher to qualify for an earned runs average or wins title in the MLB he must have a minimum of 1.0 innings pitched per game. Therefore he must have a minimum of 162.0 innings pitched for the season
Asked in Baseball, Softball, Baseball Rules and Regulations

Can runners advance on a ball thrown out of play?

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Yes. On the first throw by an infielder, all runners advance 2 bases from where they were at the time of the pitch. If the throw is a subsequent throw during an extended play or a throw by an outfielder, all runners advance 2 bases from the last base they legally held at the time of the throw.
Asked in Baseball, World Series, Baseball Rules and Regulations

How many games in the MLB playoffs?

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The amount of games in Major League Baseball's playoffs each Fall varies, depending on the series. If a tiebreaker is necessary to decide the Wild Card from either division, then a single game will be played between the tying teams to determine who enters the playoffs as the Wild Card. The first round, also known as the Division Series (ALDS for the American League, and NLDS for the National League) is a Best-of-5 series with a winner determined after three total game wins. The winner of this series advances to their league's Championship Series (ALCS and NLCS), which is a Best-of-7 series. The two teams that win the two Championship Series will then face one another in the finals of the playoffs, known as the "World Series". Like the Championship Series, the World Series is a Best-of-7, with the winner taking all after four wins. Because these are a series of "Best-ofs", the amount of games played each year in the playoffs may be greatly different. If every contention between two teams is a clean sweep, the amount of games played will be far fewer than average. Conversely, if every series goes to its maximum number of games, the playoffs will take longer than usual.
Asked in Softball, Baseball Rules and Regulations, The Difference Between

What are the differences between the rules of baseball and softball?

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Differences Between Softball and Baseball The softball is usually about 12 inches in circumference, compared to 9 inches for a baseball The ball is pitched underhand in softball, overhand in baseball The bases are 60 feet apart in softball, 90 feet apart in baseball There are 7 innings in a softball game, 9 in a baseball game Softball starting players may re-enter the game after the first substitution (a second substitution is permanent, the starter may not re-enter). In baseball, a substitution of any kind is permanent Softball is pitched from a flat 'circle', instead of a mound, as in baseball The softball infield is all dirt, baseball has grass in the infield Depending on the softball governing body, distance from the pitching rubber to the plate is 43' or 45', baseball is 60'6" The outfield fences are typically 300' in softball, a little further in baseball Because of the proximity of the pitcher to the plate, the size of the ball and a couple of other features, Softball strategy involves much more 'small ball', meaning bunting and slapping to advance runners in order to score. Other friendus from the community:The objective of the games are basically the same. Balls/strikes/outs are consistent. Baseball can leave the base prior to the pitcher releasing the ball, whereas in softball the runners may not leave until the ball is released. If you are familiar with baseball, you can research softball under ASA or Pony leagues for additional information. At the minutia level of detail, softball players curiously do not wear pants, like baseball players [in 2008, the trend toward pants is gaining momentum...basically TEAM USA (the Olympic Team, is one of the last organized teams that wear shorts]. The softball is usually yellow vs. white. The softball pitcher may leave the pitching rubber during delivery before releasing the ball; in baseball this would be an illegal pitch. The softball bat is also different from a baseball bat in that it is not tapered. In ASA Softball, all players are required to have a cage attached to the batting helmet.
Asked in Baseball, Baseball History, Baseball Rules and Regulations

Do major league baseball players get free tickets to their games?

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The tickets they get aren't free, but the players earn so much moolah that they are virtually free to the players.
Asked in Baseball, Major League Baseball (MLB), Baseball Rules and Regulations

Why is a 'K' used for a strikeout in baseball?

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The use of the last letter of Struck instead of the first to denote a strikeout dates back to when Henry Chadwick developed the box score in the late 1850's. Chadwick often used the last letter instead of the first, especially if he considered that letter to be the more prominent one in the word. Chadwick said "the letter K in struck is easier to remember in connection with the word, than S." He also used L for Foul and D for Catch on Bound. Only the K survived into the 20th Century. Source: Paul Dickson's The New Dickson Baseball Dictionary and Alan Schwarz's The Numbers Game. The common view that the K was used because the S was taken (by Sacrifice, Stolen Base, or Single) appears to be erroneous. Other friendus from the community: 'K' was chosen to represent Struck, because S was already taken to mean Stolen base. The K and S are both still used today. 'K' is a Strike The symbol "K" is used because it is made with 3 strokes of the pencil, symbolizing the 3 strikes for the strikeout. Scorekeepers use a backward K (or a KL, or Kc) when a batter strikes out looking/called 3rd strike. K stands for 'struck'. Back in the old days, scorekeepers used letters for symbols, K is the only one that we still use today. Fyi, to help keep things clear in record keeping, a backwards k is used if the player struck out looking. I always thought that K was short for K.O. like knock out. Back in the day, score keeping was done entirely with letters, no numbers (Double was D, not 2B). When "strikeout" became an official statistic, "K" was the first letter not already being used (S- Single, T- Triple, R-Run, I-Inning, then K) So K became strikeout, and it was one of the few from that era that actually stuck. We owe the "K" to an early sportswriter named Henry Chadwick. In fact, Chadwick and another writer named M.J. Kelly are largely responsible for the scoring system baseball uses today. Chadwick already had "S" slated for "sacrifice." So a strikeout became a "K", after the last letter of the word "struck." The reason a strikeout isn't a "T" is because "struck" was the preferred term of the day. The symbol "K" in baseball scorecards represents "Strikeout." Why? Well, baseball pioneer Henry Chadwick, the NY Herald's first baseball editor, first used the symbol in 1868. As far as he was concerned, the letter "K" was the "prominent letter of the word strike," adding that "the letter K in struck is easier to remember, than S." While the above answer may have some basis in fact, there is another explanation. There are two ways to strike out. (In fact, there are two ways in which a player can strike out, and reach first base safely, if the third strike is not caught in the air by the catcher. How do you score that? I'm not telling. ;-)) A player can strike out swinging, or be called out on strikes. To make the distinction, the letters SOS and KOS are used. Try to shorten it. KS? COS? CS? It is an important statistic to the manager, that wants to know who will let the third strike go by, and who will swing. A "K" merely denotes a generic strikeout. This might be a myth but I was taught it was a simple way of counting strikes. First strike, line one "|" second strike line two "/", third strike line three "". That makes your K. The reverse or "backwards" K indicates the third strike was a called strike. I think it might be short for K.O. or knock/strike out. sort of a link to boxing. A "k" means a strike out but you can be more specific than that. if it is forwards than that means that they struck out swinging if it is backwards it means that they didn't swing at the third strike See Related Links See the Related Link to the left for "The Dugout Review of The Joy of Keeping Score."
Asked in Baseball, Baseball History, Baseball Rules and Regulations

Do errors and fielders choice factor into batting average?

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Yes, if a hitter hits into a fielder's choice he gets credited for an at-bat and is NOT credited with a hit. Whether its an error or a fielder's choice the players batting average WILL decrease
Asked in Baseball, Baseball Rules and Regulations, Percentages, Fractions, and Decimal Values

Do errors and fielders choice factor into on base percentage?

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For on-base percentage, it still counts as an at bat and the hitter is not credited with an 'on base' so whether its an error or a fielder's choice the player's on-base percentage will decrease
Asked in Baseball, Baseball Rules and Regulations

How many pitches in each inning?

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There are no set number of pitches in each inning. The absolute shortest number of pitches that could be pitched in one inning is 6, with 3 outs per half-inning, assuming each batter swung at the first pitch resulting in an out. I don't know the most pitches that have been thrown in one inning. I have watched games where a pitcher (or multiple pitchers) have thrown forty or more pitches in one half-inning alone. Until 3 outs have been recorded, a pitcher will continue pitching to batters. If a batter steps into the batters box with an illegal bat, he is immediately called out. If three batters on each team did this, you could have zero pitches thrown in an inning.
Asked in Baseball, New York Yankees, Baseball Rules and Regulations

Who has worn number 2 on the New York Yankees?

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The most icnoic player that had number 2 was Yankess SS Derek Jeter. That number is no retired by the Yankees.
Asked in Baseball Rules and Regulations, Youth Sports

How far is it from home plate to the pitchers mound in midget league baseball?

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The distance from home plate to the rubber for midget baseball is the same as the MLB distance, 60.5 feet (60'6")
Asked in Physics, Baseball Rules and Regulations

Calculate the velocity of ball just before it hits the ground when dropped from a height of 6m?

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Here are two different methods to solve this kind of problem. 1) Use one of the formulae for constant acceleration. In this case, vf2 = vi2 + 2as, where vf is the final velocity, vi is the initial velocity (zero in this case), a is the acceleration (9.8 meters / second2), and s is the distance. 2) Do an energy calculation, as follows: Calculate the potential energy at a height of 6 meters, with the formula PE = mgh. Since we can assume that the entire potential energy gets converted to kinetic energy just before the ball hits the ground, solve for velocity, in the kinetic energy formula.
Asked in Baseball, Baseball History, Baseball Rules and Regulations

Where does the mud umpires rub on baseballs before games come from?

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Baseball, Umpires and Mud major league baseball use Louisiana mud or Mississippi mud to rub baseball i know because i work for a team as the bat boy.
Asked in Baseball, Baseball History, Baseball Rules and Regulations

What MLB pitcher has won 20 games and lost 20 games in the same season?

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The last to do it was Phil Niekro of the 1979 Atlanta Braves who went 21-20. Wilbur Wood of the 1973 Chicago White Sox went 24-20. Both threw, primarily, the knuckleball which is not as tiring on the arm as other pitches. Niekro started 44 games and pitched 342 innings in 1979 and Wood started 49 games and pitched 359 innings in 1973. Prior to Wood and Niekro, Walter Johnson of the 1916 Washington Senators went 25-20. Joe McGinnity went 26-20 for the 1901 Baltimore Orioles and 31-20 for the 1903 New York Giants. Cy Young of the 1894 Cleveland Spiders went 26-22 in 1894 and 27-22 in 1891 for the Spiders.
Asked in Baseball, Baseball Rules and Regulations, Youth Sports

How far is it from home plate to the pitcher's mound in little league baseball?

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Distance From Home Plate to Pitcher's Mound The distance from home plate to the pitcher's mound in Little League is 46 feet. High School and up is 60 feet and 6 inches (a mistake in measuring long ago but was left that way). Pitcher's mound distances are ALWAYS measured from the front of the rubber to the rear tip of home plate.
Asked in Baseball, Baseball History, Baseball Rules and Regulations

Can a replacement pitcher in major league baseball reenter the game as pitcher?

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No, once you leave the game you cannot re-enter it, regardless of the positions.
Asked in Baseball Rules and Regulations

Ball goes OVER third base bag but lands in foul territory fair or foul ball?

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If a fly ball goes over the third base bag and lands in foul territory, the ball is called foul. If a ground ball goes over the third base bag in the air, the ball is fair regardless of where the next bounce is.
Asked in National Hockey League (NHL), Baseball Rules and Regulations

What does it mean to waive a no trade clause?

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Major League Baseball players as a result of signing a contract with a team will typically request a no trade clause of some kind sometimes they are full no trade clause which prevents them from being traded to any team without their permission and sometimes they are limited no trade clauses which only prevents them from being traded to anywhere around 10-15 teams, waiving a no-trade clause typically means a baseball player has a no-trade clause of some kind in their contract and they are waiving it in order to be traded to a team.
Asked in Baseball, Softball, Baseball Rules and Regulations

What is the definition of Strike vs Ball?

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A ball is when the pitcher pitches a ball that cannot be hit. A strike is when a pitcher throws a good pitch, but the batter does't swing the bat or the first two fouls are both strikes, if they are side by side. After the batter gets 4 balls they are able to walk to 1st base. A strike is a pitch the batter offers at or apitch that enters the strike zone and is not offered at. A ball is a pitch that does not enter the strike zone and is not offered at.